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The occurrence of anorectal malformations (ARM) is thought to be reduced with sufficient folate intake. However, there is no apparent evidence. We focused on enzyme cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, including folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and explored the association between maternal combined intake of these B vitamins and the risk of ARM. Using baseline data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study between 2011 and 2014, we analysed data of 89 235 women (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Information on dietary intake was obtained via a FFQ focused on early pregnancy and used to estimate B vitamin intake. We also collected information on the frequency of folic acid supplement use. ARM occurrence was ascertained from medical records. We identified forty-three cases of ARM diagnosed up to the first month after birth (4·8 per 10 000 live births). In terms of individual intake of the respective B vitamins, high vitamin B6 intake was non-significantly associated with reduced odds of ARM. Compared with women in the low combined B vitamin intake group, the OR of having an infant with ARM was 0·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·0) in the high intake group (folate ≥400 μg/d, and upper half of vitamin B6 and/or vitamin B12). In conclusion, our cohort analysis suggested an inverse association between the combined intake of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins in early pregnancy and ARM occurrence.
The pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is largely unknown; however, vitamin A seems to play a role in diaphragmatic development. Previous case–control studies reported that maternal dietary vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of CDH. To our knowledge, however, there is no prospective evidence regarding this association. Our aim was to examine whether maternal intake of vitamin A was associated with CDH occurrence. Baseline data, from the Japan nationwide birth cohort study (2011–2014) of 89 658 mothers (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births, were analysed. We assessed dietary habits using an FFQ focused on the first trimester and estimated the daily intake of total vitamin A (retinol activity equivalents), retinol, provitamin A carotenoids and vegetables. The occurrence of CDH was ascertained from medical records. A total of forty cases of CDH were documented. The adjusted OR of CDH occurrence for the high total vitamin A intake category (median = 468 μg/d) was 0·6 (95 % CI 0·3, 1·2) with reference to the low intake category (230 μg/d). When we restricted to mothers with a prepregnancy BMI of 18·5–24·9 kg/m2, vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of their children being born with CDH (OR 0·5, 95 % CI 0·2, 1·0). Even given the limited number of cases in the study, our findings provide additional evidence to link vitamin A with CDH.
Current evidence suggests that the aetiology of congenital gastrointestinal (GI) tract atresia is multifactorial, and not based solely on genetic factors. However, there are no established modifiable risk factors for congenital GI tract atresia. We used data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study launched in 2011, and examined whether fish consumption in early pregnancy was associated with congenital GI tract atresia. We analysed data of 89 495 women (mean age at delivery=31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Based on the results of the FFQ, we estimated the daily intake of fish and n-3 PUFA consumption in early pregnancy. We defined a composite outcome (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and/or anorectal malformation) as congenital GI tract atresia. In this population, median fish intake was 31·9 g/d, and seventy-four cases of congenital GI tract atresia were identified. Fish consumption in early pregnancy was inversely associated with the composite outcome (multivariable-adjusted OR for the high v. low consumption category=0·5, 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0). For all the specific types of atresia, decreased OR were observed in the high consumption category, although not statistically significant. Reduced atresia occurrence was observed even beyond the US Food and Drug Administration’s recommended consumption of no more than 340 g/week. Also, n-3 PUFA-rich fish and n-3 PUFA consumptions tended to be inversely associated with atresia. Fish consumption in early pregnancy may be a preventive factor for congenital GI tract atresia.
A new cleaning technique using gas dissolved water has been found to be effective in protecting against corrosion in aluminum metallization, which is also useful in post-cleaning of Cu CMP as already reported. Corrosion can be a significant concern in aluminum as well as in copper metallization. In Al CMP process, corrosion often occurs in contact with DIWbecause of the big potential difference between Al and the barrier metal. In this study, it has been confirmed that gas dissolved water is able to change the potential of various metal films, and that following Al CMP, post-cleaning using gas dissolved water instead of DIW can successfully protect against corrosion.
Furthermore this technique is also effective in the post-cleaning process of Al wiring formed by RIE, which contains a slight amount of Cu. Because segregation of copper at the side-wall of wiring often occurs during RIE and the following processes, Al-Cu wiring is easily corroded during the DIW rinsing step in wet cleaning, which may cause killer defects. Gas dissolved water can remarkably decrease the potential difference between Al-Cu alloy and segregated Cu, as well as Al-Cu alloy and the Ti/TiN used as a barrier metal. Moreover, because it seems that a reaction occurs between cathode water and Ti/TiN, where electrons may be supplied there to corrosive sites, corrosion can be prevented.
The micro FEM model, which was considered in the middle bottom of a four-point bending macro FEM model, was constructed from a SEM micrograph of an Al2O3-10vol%ZrO2 ceramic, in which the crystallographic information was given to each grain randomly. One micro-crack was introduced in the micro FEM model as a basic case to simulate the four-point bending strength. The strength was determined by the average stress in a one-grain size distance from the crack tip. Two types of micro-cracks were introduced in the model as a second micro-crack, and the strength was compared with the basic case. For the case in which the second crack is parallel to the first crack and apart from the first crack in horizontal direction, the strength was increasing with the second crack closer to the first crack. For the case in which the second crack is parallel to the first crack but apart from the first crack in vertical direction, the strength was decreasing with the second crack closer to the first crack.
We here studied photosensitized radical reaction of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) using spectrophotometry, electron spin resonance (ESR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements, and semiempirical molecular orbital calculation. PLA doped with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was irradiated at 77 K using UV light. After the irradiation, we observed a new broad absorption band that is assigned to TMPD radical cation produced by two-photon ionization. ESR spectrum of the irradiated sample also indicated presence of main chain scission radical of PLA as well as the TMPD radical cation. By increasing the irradiation time, the ESR spectrum changed by another radical species which is produced by dehydrogenation of PLA main chain. Spectral simulation for the obtained ESR spectra revealed changes of relative amounts. The GPC measurements clearly indicated decrease in molecular weight of PLA after the irradiation. The semiempirical molecular orbital calculation was used to confirm the reaction scheme of radical anion decomposition.
A microstructural change during the formation reaction of aluminum titanate from a mixture of rutile and corundum powders has been studied. The characterization was carried out using a polarization microscope, a scanning electron microscope and a micro-focus X-ray diffractometer. The formation of aluminum titanate was controlled by a nucleation step. The formation reaction proceeded to form spherically oriented regions of aluminum titanate grains among the matrix of rutile and corundum. At the end of the reaction, the specimen was entirely filled with the oriented region of consisting several hundred micrometers. The oriented region was composed of primary aluminum titanate grains of several micrometers and pores. Large cracks due to a thermal expansion anisotropy were formed at the boundaries of the orientated regions. The formation of the oriented region was caused by a small change in free energy, increasing elastic energy, and the endothermic nature of the reaction.
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