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Incorporation of porosity into a monolithic material decreases the effective thermal conductivity. Porous ceramics were prepared by different methods to achieve pore volume fractions from 4 to 95%. A toolbox of analytical relations is proposed to describe the effective thermal conductivity as a function of solid phase thermal conductivity, pore thermal conductivity, and pore volume fraction (νp). For νp < 0.65, the Maxwell–Eucken relation for closed porosity and Landauer relation for open porosity give good agreement to experimental data on tin oxide, alumina, and zirconia ceramics. For νp > 0.65, the thermal conductivity of kaolin-based foams and calcium aluminate foams was well described by the Hashin Shtrikman upper bound and Russell’s relation. Finally, numerical simulation on artificially generated microstructures yields accurate predictions of thermal conductivity when fine detail of the spatial distribution of the phases needs to be accounted for, as demonstrated with a bio-aggregate material.
We performed ab initio Hartree–Fock molecular orbital calculations of solute elements in amorphous silicon nitride (Si–N) ceramics. To investigate effects of solute elements, X, such as boron, carbon, aluminum, silicon, and phosphorus, on stabilization of the Si–N network, we used model clusters representing local atomic structures in the Si–N network, and the solute elements were substituted for nitrogen. Bonding characteristics around the solute elements were analyzed, and bond energies of Si–X were also calculated using model clusters. It was found that, among these solute elements in amorphous Si–N, the Si–C bond is able to make the Si–N network more stable due to its high covalency.
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