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Multimedia learning environments require learners to integrate information across different sources and modalities, which can pose a challenge for some learners. Providing feedback on student responses can be an effective method of guiding learners to achieve a deep understanding of the material. The feedback principle states that novice students learn better with explanatory feedback than with corrective feedback alone. Explanatory feedback provides the learner with a principle-based explanation of why his or her answer was correct or incorrect, whereas corrective feedback merely informs the learner that his or her response was correct or incorrect. The theoretical rationale is that explanatory feedback guides the learner in selecting the appropriate information and consequently reduces the amount of extraneous processing relative to providing only corrective feedback. This chapter reviews evidence for the feedback principle and explores some of the boundary conditions.
Folic acid food fortification has successfully reduced neural tube defect-affected pregnancies across Canada. The effect of this uncontrolled public health intervention on folate intake among Canadian children is, however, unknown. Our objectives were to determine folic acid intake from food fortification and whether fortification promoted adequate folate intakes, and to describe folic acid-fortified food usage among Ontario preschoolers.
Cross-sectional data were used from the NutriSTEP™ validation project with preschoolers recruited using convenience sampling. Mean daily total folate and folic acid intakes were estimated from 3 d food records, which included multivitamin supplement use. Comparisons were made to Dietary Reference Intakes, accounting for and excluding fortificant folic acid, to determine the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes.
Two hundred and fifty-four preschoolers (aged 3–5 years).
All participants (130 girls, 124 boys) ate folic acid-fortified foods and 30 % (n 76) used folic acid-containing supplements. Mean (se) fortificant folic acid intake was 83 (2) μg/d, which contributed 30 % and 50 % to total folate intake for supplement users and non-users, respectively. The prevalence of total folate intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement was <1 %; however, excluding fortificant folic acid, the prevalence was 32 %, 54 % and 47 % for 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds, respectively. The overall prevalence of folic acid (fortificant and supplemental) intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was 2 % (7 % among supplement users).
Folic acid food fortification promotes dietary folate adequacy and did not appear to result in excessive folic acid intake unless folic acid-containing supplements were consumed.
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