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Luminescent silica nanotubes and nanowires were fabricated from cellulose whisker templates by sol-gel processing. The cellulose templates were removed by calcination at 650 °C to generate silica nanotubes with diameters of 15 nm and lengths up to 500 nm. At temperatures of 900 °C the core region previously occupied by the cellulose template was closed yielding silica nanowires. Cathodoluminescence spectra of the silica nanotubes and nanowires were measured in the transmission electron microscope during irradiation with 150 keV electrons. A blue emission at 450 nm was observed for the silica nanowires calcined at 900 °C. This luminescence was found to be related to defects induced by electron irradiation and was investigated in situ as a function of irradiation dose. The as-synthesized and 650 °C calcined nanowires and nanotubes showed a fast decay of the signal. The observed irradiation dose dependent changes in the luminescence spectra will be discussed in terms of defect formation and transformation mechanisms.
We have equipped our transmission electron microscope (accelerating voltage up to 300 kV) with a cathodoluminescence (CL) system that covers a wavelength range of 180 — 1800 nm and temperatures from 10 K upwards. This contribution shows how this system can be utilized to study the initial damage process due to electron irradiation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin solar films. This damage leads essentially to atomic defects that cannot structurally be imaged in the transmission electron microscope, but influence the luminescence spectra. We analyse in-situ the spectral evolutions with electron dose of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 with [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) ratio x ranging from x=0 to x=1 and interpret the defect formation kinetics with a first model. The obtained results indicate that the films with equal Ga and In concentration are the least radiation sensitive. The voltage dependence of the damage rate indicates that the damage arises essentially due to displacement by electron knock-on (in the voltage range 150 — 300 kV).
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