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Experiments were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to determine the critical period of johnsongrass control in field corn. Maximum weed-infested and weed-free periods of 0 to 20 wk after corn emergence were maintained by either hand weeding or nicosulfuron application. Interference duration effects on corn grain yield were not affected by johnsongrass control methods. The critical period for johnsongrass control was determined to be between 3 and 6.5 wk after corn emergence to avoid losses above 5% of yield produced by full-season weed-free corn.
Johnsongrass control systems that included commercially available corn herbicides applied to crop sequences of continuous corn or corn–cotton–corn rotation were evaluated over a 3-yr period at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Burleson County. Herbicide treatments evaluated were EPTC + R-25788 applied preplant incorporated (PPI); metolachlor applied preemergence (PRE); nicosulfuron applied postemergence (POST); and the combination of metolachlor PRE and glyphosate POST applied after corn harvest. Weed control practices applied to plots planted to cotton in the second growing season provided excellent johnsongrass control (≈ 95%). Visual control ratings indicated that nicosulfuron provided the best johnsongrass control (> 80%) among the herbicides evaluated all three years. Metolachlor and glyphosate combinations provided acceptable johnsongrass control the third year of the experiment in both cropping sequences. Corn grain yield and johnsongrass control were best in cotton-rotated plots. The highest returns observed in continuous corn were from either nicosulfuron or the combination of metolachlor and glyphosate. Net returns for all control systems in corn–cotton–corn rotated plots were greater than the weedy check and were equivalent to the lead systems in continuous corn.
Olive jift is a solid by-product of olive (Olea europea) oil processing. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate olive jift effect on broomrape (Orobanche spp.) infections on three crops. Soil—jift mixtures were used as potting medium in ratios of 1:0, 1:1, and 3:1 soil to jift. Broomrape seeds were evenly incorporated in the potting media at 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750, and 900 seeds/kg. Pots planted with faba bean or pea were inoculated with seeds of O. crenata Forsk., whereas pots planted with tomato were inoculated with seeds of O. lavandulacea Reichenb. Jift in soil reduced broomrape germination and infection on all three hosts regardless of inoculation densities. Pea was not infected with broomrape in jift-containing media at any inoculation density, whereas only sporadic broomrape infections were observed in faba bean and tomato grown in jift-mixed soils. Fresh and dry weights of all crops were not adversely affected by mixing jift with soil. These results suggest a possible use of jift as an inexpensive organic material for broomrape control.
Experiments were conducted from 1990 to 1994 to investigate the density-dependent effects of rhizome and seedling johnsongrass on the magnitude of full-season interference in field corn. Corn grain yield was decreased as rhizome johnsongrass density increased. A maximum density of 3 rhizome johnsongrass plants 9.8 m−1 of row was considered critical to avoid yield losses above 5% of full-season weed-free corn. Interference of johnsongrass plants originating from seed and growing at densities up to 128 plants 9.8 m−1 of row did not affect grain yield. Seedling johnsongrass plants growing at a constant density of 9.8 plants m−1 of row did not affect yield from corn planted at five densities.
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