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Burn patients are at high risk of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). However, the diagnosis of such infections is complex, resource-intensive, and often delayed. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of CLABSI and develop a prediction model for the infection in burn patients. The study analysed the infection profiles, clinical epidemiology, and central venous catheter (CVC) management of patients in a large burn centre in China from January 2018 to December 2021. In total, 222 burn patients with a cumulative 630 CVCs and 5,431 line-days were included. The CLABSI rate was 23.02 CVCs per 1000 line-days. The three most common bacterial species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 76.09% of isolates were multidrug resistant. Compared with a non-CLABSI cohort, CLABSI patients were significantly older, with more severe burns, more CVC insertion times, and longer total line-days, as well as higher mortality. Regression analysis found longer line-days, more catheterisation times, and higher burn wounds index to be independent risk factors for CLABSI. A novel nomogram based on three risk factors was constructed with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.782–0.898) with a mean absolute error of calibration curve of 0.023. The nomogram showed excellent predictive ability and clinical applicability, and provided a simple, practical, and quantitative strategy to predict CLABSI in burn patients.
The breakup process of a charged, leaky-dielectric jet subjected to an axial perturbation is computationally analysed from the perspectives of linear and nonlinear dynamics using the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian technique. The linear dynamics of the leaky-dielectric jet is quantitatively predicted by the dispersion relation from the linear stability analysis. Regarding the nonlinear dynamics, it is found that the charge relaxation is responsible for the radial compression of satellite droplets, which is validated by experiments. Two types of charge relaxations, namely, ohmic conduction and surface charge convection, define the pinching process into three breakup modes, i.e. ligament pinching, end pinching and transition pinching. In the ligament-pinching mode, the ohmic conduction dominates the jet breakup since the charge relaxes to the jet ligament instantaneously. In contrast, the surface charge convection takes effect in the end-pinching mode since the surface charge is convected to the jet end via fluid flow. When the ohmic conduction is comparable to the surface charge convection, the breakup occurs simultaneously at the end and the ligament. Finally, the influences of the perturbed wavenumber, the electric field intensity and the viscosity on the breakup mode and the local dynamics at pinch-off are comprehensively discussed.
Expanded graphite/cobalt ferrite/polyaniline (EG/CF/PANI) ternary composites were obtained by a two-step process. The intercalation compound, CF embedded in EG, was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. PANI could then be coated on the surface of the EG/CF microparticles by in-situ polymerization to form ternary composites of EG/CF/PANI. The results indicate that the electrical and magnetic performance of EG/CF and EG/CF/PANI composites are related to their composition. The EG/CF composite with mass ratio of 1.0 has the maximal conductivity (833.33 S·cm−1) among the binary composites. Saturation magnetizations (Ms) of the EG/CF composite with mEG/mCF of 0.8 is the largest among EG/CF composites, the ternary composites of EG/CF/PANI were prepared from the EG/CF composite at this mass ratio. The electromagnetic wave absorbing property of all ternary composites excelled those of EG/CF composites, and the sample with 40 wt% of PANI has the best absorption properties in the range of 8–18 GHz frequency.
In this paper we survey the connection of certain infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, including twisted and untwisted affine Lie algebras, toroidal Lie algebras and quantum torus Lie algebras, with vertex algebras.
Vertex (operator) algebras are a new class of algebraic structures and they have deep connections with numerous fields. In mathematics, vertex algebras have been a vibrant research area. On the other hand, as the algebraic counterpart of chiral algebras, vertex operator algebras together with their representations provide a solid foundation for the study of conformal field theory in physics.
Though vertex algebras are highly non-classical, they have connections with classical algebras such as Lie algebras, associative algebras and groups. In particular, vertex algebras are often constructed and studied by using classical (infinite-dimensional) Lie algebras. For example, those vertex operator algebras associated to (untwisted) affine Kac-Moody Lie algebras (including infinite-dimension Heisenberg Lie algebras) and the Virasoro Lie algebra (cf. [FZ], [DL], [Li1], [LL]) are among the important examples. These two families of vertex operator algebras underline the algebraic study of the physical Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model and the minimal models in conformal field theory, respectively. On the other hand, twisted affine Lie algebras (see [K1]) can be also associated with vertex operator algebras in terms of twisted modules (see [FLM], [Li2]). In the theory of Lie algebras, by generalizing the loop-realization of untwisted affine Lie algebras, one has toroidal Lie algebras, which are perfect central extensions of multi-loop Lie algebras.
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