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Retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy is challenging. This study investigated a minimally invasive approach to salvage retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
An anatomical study of four fresh cadaveric heads was conducted to demonstrate the relevant details of retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy using the endoscopic transoral medial pterygomandibular fold approach. Six patients with nasopharyngeal cancer with retropharyngeal lymph node recurrence, who underwent retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy with the endoscopic transoral medial pterygomandibular fold technique at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University from July to December 2021, were included in this study.
The anatomical study demonstrated that the endoscopic transoral medial pterygomandibular fold approach offers a short path and minimally invasive approach to the retropharyngeal space. The surgical procedure was well tolerated by all patients, with no significant post-operative complications.
The endoscopic transoral medial pterygomandibular fold approach is safe and efficient for retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy.
An advanced cone-nanolayer target with nanolayers on both inside and outside of the hollow-cone tip is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that laser interaction with such cone-nanolayer targets can efficiently produce fast electron beams with manageable spotsize, and the beams can propagate for a relatively long distance in the vacuum beyond the cone tip.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
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