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Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
Methods for the control of molecular deposition and orientation are critical for the development of organic electronic devices. Here, we show the fabrication of ribbons of the optical material polydiacetylene (PDA) using a controlled evaporative self-assembly method. The ability to form these ribbons is highly dependent on both the side groups on the PDA as well as the solvent used in the preparation. Arrays of ribbons of one type of PDA, poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne], with widths on the order of 1–2 µm and lengths of 100s of micrometers, could be successfully obtained with good orientation.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Low birth weight was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in adult age. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has a crucial role in fetal growth and also associates with cardiometabolic risks in adults. Therefore, we elucidated the association between IGF-1 level and serum lipids in cord blood of preterm infants. The subjects were 41 consecutive, healthy preterm neonates (27 male, 14 female) born at <37-week gestational age, including 10 small for gestational age (SGA) infants (<10th percentile). IGF-1 levels and serum lipids were measured in cord blood, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDLTG) levels were determined by HPLC method. SGA infants had lower IGF-1 (13.1 ± 5.3 ng/ml), total cholesterol (TC) (55.0 ± 14.8), LDLC (21.6 ± 8.3) and HDLC (26.3 ± 11.3) levels, and higher VLDLTG levels (19.0 ± 12.7 mg/dl) than in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (53.6 ± 25.6, 83.4 ± 18.9, 36.6 ± 11.1, 38.5 ± 11.6, 8.1 ± 7.0, respectively). In simple regression analyses, log IGF-1 correlated positively with birth weight (r = 0.721, P < 0.001), TC (r = 0.636, P < 0.001), LDLC (r = 0.453, P = 0.006), and HDLC levels (r = 0.648, P < 0.001), and negatively with log TG (r = −0.484, P = 0.002) and log VLDL-TG (r = −0.393, P = 0.018). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that IGF-1 was an independent predictor of TC, HDLC and TG levels after the gestational age and birth weight were taken into account. In preterm SGA infants, cord blood lipids profile altered with the concomitant decrease in IGF-1 level.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
The near-infrared (NIR) spectral range (2–5 μm) contains a number of interesting features for the study of the interstellar medium. In particular, the aromatic and aliphatic components in carbonaceous dust can be investigated most efficiently with the NIR spectroscopy. We analyze NIR spectra of the diffuse Galactic emission taken with the Infrared Camera onboard AKARI and find that the aliphatic to aromatic emission band ratio decreases toward the ionized gas, which suggests processing of the band carriers in the ionized region.
As the binary collision process requires much more computation time, a statistical electron-electron collision model based on modified Langevin equation is developed to reduce it. This collision model and a simple electron-ion scattering model are installed into one-dimensional PIC code, and collisional effects on fast electron generation and transport in fast ignition are investigated. In the collisional case, initially thermal electrons are heated up to a few hundred keV due to direct energy transfer by electron-electron collision, and they are also heated up to MeV by Joule heating induced by electron-ion scattering. Thus the number of low energy component of fast electrons increase than that in the collisionless case.
A 60 GHz tandem coupler using offset broadside coupled lines is proposed in a WLP (Wafer Level Packaging) technology. The fabricated coupler has a core chip area of 750 μm × 385 μm (0.288 mm2). The measured results show an insertion loss of 0.44 dB, an amplitude imbalance of 0.03 dB and a phase difference of 87.6° at 60 GHz. Also the measurement shows an insertion loss of less than 0.67 dB, an amplitude imbalance of less than 0.31 dB, a phase error of less than 3.7°, an isolation of more than 29.7 dB and a return loss of more than 27.9 dB at the input ant coupled ports and more than 14.3 dB at the direct and isolated ports over the frequency band of 57-66 GHz, covering 60 GHz band both in Japan and US. To the best of our knowledge the proposed coupler achieves the lowest ever reported insertion loss and amplitude imbalance for a 3-dB coupler on a silicon substrate. With its superior performance and lower cost compared to the CMOS counterparts, the proposed coupler is a suitable candidate for low-cost high-performance millimeter-wave systems.
We have succeeded in the rapid epitaxial growth of Si, Ge, and SiGe films on Si substrates below 670 ºC by reactive CVD utilizing the spontaneous exothermic reaction between SiH4, GeH4, and F2. Mono-crystalline SiGe epitaxial films with Ge composition ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 have been successfully grown by reactive CVD for the first time.
This technique has also been successfully applied to the growth of these films on silicon-on-glass substrates by a 20 - 50 ºC increase of the heating temperature. Over 10 μm thick epitaxial films at 3 nm/s growth rate are obtained. The etch pit density of the 5.2 μm-thick Si0.5Ge0.5 film is as low as 5 x 106 cm-2 on top. Mobilities of the undoped SiGe and Si films are 180 to 550 cm2/Vs, confirming the good crystallinity of the epitaxial films.
Within the Herschel key project “The Warm And Dense ISM” (WADI) we systematically observe
a number of prominent photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to measure the impact of varying UV
fields on the energy balance, the chemical and dynamical structure of heated molecular
Near-infrared (NIR; 2.5–5 μm) low-resolution
(λ/Δλ ~ 100) spectra were obtained for a
number of Galactic and extragalactic objects with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the AKARI
warm mission. These data provide us with the first opportunity to make a systematic study
of the 3.3–3.5 μm PAH features in a galactic scale as well as within an
object. Whereas the 3.3 μm band is well resolved in most spectra, the
3.5 μm band is not clearly separated from the 3.4 μm
band in the IRC spectrum. The intensity ratio of the summation of the 3.4 and
3.5 μm bands to the 3.3 μm band shows a tendency to
increase towards the Galactic center, although a large variation in the ratio is also seen
in a local scale. A search for deuterated PAH features in the 4 μm region
is carried out in IRC NIR spectra. Emission lines originating from the ionized gas
together with the detector anomaly hamper an accurate search at certain wavelengths, but
little convincing evidence has so far been obtained for the presence of significant
features in 4.2–4.7 μm. A conservative upper limit of a few percents is
obtained for the integrated intensity ratio of the 4.4–4.7 μm possible
features to the 3.3–3.5 μm PAH features in the spectra so far
In the recent development of the studies in iron-based superconductors, high-pressure experiments have been played an important role. Large enhancement of Tc with applying pressure and pressure-induced superconductivity were reported in LaFeAsO1-xFx. In this work, electrical, magnetic and structural measurements on 1111 type Ca(Fe1-xCox)AsF and 11 type Fe(Se1-xTex)0.92 under high pressure have been performed. For Ca(Fe1-xCox)AsF, the substitution of Co suppressed the magnetic and structural transitions and raised superconductivity. Pressure-induced superconductivity was observed for x = 0.0 and 0.05. The highest Tc was obtained in parent compound under high pressure, in contrast to LaFeAsO1-xFx. These results suggest that the substitution of Co increases carrier concentration and induces disorder in the FeAs superconducting layer. For FeTe0.92, pressure-induced superconductivity was not detected under high pressure up to 19 GPa, although the resistive anomaly due to the structural and magnetic phase transition was suppressed by applying pressure.
There are few data on circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms in H. pylori-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the effects of H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism on plasma IL-8 levels in 98 Japanese adults. Seventy-one subjects were positive for H. pylori infection. The geometric mean of plasma IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than in those without (P=0·001). The development of atrophy was negatively associated with IL-8 levels in the H. pylori-positive subjects, although not significantly. Plasma IL-8 levels in the T/T genotype were associated with H. pylori infection and atrophy status (P=0·016). Our findings suggested that circulating IL-8 levels were associated with H. pylori infection. The effect of H. pylori infection on plasma IL-8 levels was not clearly modified by the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism.
We report the results of mid- to far-infrared spectroscopic
observations of Galactic star-forming regions with ISO, Spitzer, and
AKARI. Owing to the high sensitivity of the IRS onboard Spitzer, we
detected [Si II] 35 μm, [Fe II] 26 μm, and [Fe III] 23 μm lines widely
in low-density star-forming regions, and derived gas-phase Si and Fe
abundances as 3–100% and <22%, respectively. With the FTS
onboard AKARI, we obtained the spatial distribution of
the [O III] 88 μm emission in two star-forming regions.
We have recently identified 2 surface proteins in Entamoeba histolytica as intermediate subunits of galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (EhIgl1 and EhIgl2); these proteins both contain multiple CXXC motifs. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the corresponding proteins in Entamoeba dispar, which is neither pathogenic nor invasive. Two Igl genes encoding 1110 and 1106 amino acids (EdIgl1 and EdIgl2) were cloned from 2 strains of E. dispar. The amino acid sequence identities were 79% between EdIgl1 and EdIgl2, 75–76% between EdIgl1 and EhIgl1, and 73–74% between EdIgl2 and EhIgl2. However, all the CXXC motifs were conserved in the EdIgl proteins, suggesting that the fold conferred by this motif is important for function. Comparison of the expression level of the Igl genes by real-time RT-PCR showed 3–5 times higher expression of EdIgl1 compared to EdIgl2. Most EdIgl1 and EdIgl2 proteins were co-localized on the surface and in the cytoplasm of trophozoites, based on confocal microscopy. However, a different localization of EdIgl1 and EdIgl2 in intracellular vacuoles and a different level of phenotypic expression of the two Igls were also observed. These results demonstrate that Igls are important proteins even in non-pathogenic amoeba and that Igl1 and Igl2 may possess different functions.