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This study was conducted to examine whether glucose in maturation medium containing reduced NaCl could improve oocyte maturation and embryonic development in pigs. The base medium was bovine serum albumin-free porcine zygote medium (PZM)-3 containing 10% (v/v) pig follicular fluid (FPZM) or 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PPZM). Using each medium, the effects of NaCl concentrations (108 and 61.6 mM) and 5.56 mM glucose supplementation (designated as PZM108N, PZM108G, PZM61N, and PZM61G, respectively) were examined using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. When oocytes were matured in FPZM, glucose supplementation improved nuclear maturation compared with no supplementation, regardless of the NaCl concentrations. FPZM61G showed a higher blastocyst formation compared with FPZM108N and FPZM108G after parthenogenesis (PA). Blastocyst formations of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos derived from FPZM61N and FPZM61G were higher compared with those of oocytes from FPZM108N. When oocytes were matured in PPZM, glucose added to PPZM108 and PPZM61 increased nuclear maturation compared with no supplementation. However, glucose added to PPZM108 did not alter embryonic development after PA. Additionally, oocytes matured in PPZM61G showed a higher blastocyst formation compared with those from PPZM61N. In SCNT, blastocyst formation was not influenced by glucose supplementation of PPZM108, but was increased by maturation in glucose-supplemented PPZM61. In embryonic development of in vitro fertilization (IVF), oocytes matured in medium with reduced NaCl and glucose showed significantly higher blastocyst formation compared with those matured in PPZM108G. Our results demonstrated that glucose in maturation medium containing 61.6 mM NaCl increased oocyte maturation and embryonic development after PA, SCNT, and IVF.
The sap of Acer mono has been called ‘bone-benefit-water’ in Korea because of its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap of A. mono is 37·5 times higher than commercial spring water. In the current study, we examined whether A. mono sap could improve or prevent osteoporosis-like symptoms in a mouse model. Male mice (3 weeks old) were fed a low-calcium diet supplemented with 25, 50 or 100 % A. mono sap, commercial spring water or a high calcium-containing solution as a beverage for 7 weeks. There were no differences in weekly weight gain and food intake among all the groups. Mice that were given a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water developed osteoporosis-like symptoms. To assess the effect of sap on osteoporosis-like symptoms, we examined serum calcium concentration, and femur density and length, and carried out a histological examination. Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in mice that received a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water (the negative control group), and in the 25 % sap group compared to mice fed a normal diet, but were normal in the 50 and 100 % sap and high-calcium solution groups. Femur density and length were significantly reduced in the negative control and 25 % sap groups. These results indicate that a 50 % sap solution can mitigate osteoporosis-like symptoms induced by a low-calcium diet. We also examined the regulation of expression of calcium-processing genes in the duodenum and kidney. Duodenal TRPV6 and renal calbindin-D9k were up-regulated dose-dependently by sap, and the levels of these factors were higher than those attained in the spring water-treated control. The results demonstrate that the sap of A. mono ameliorates the low bone density induced by a low-calcium diet, most likely by increasing calcium ion absorption.
Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) has been shown to alter immune function. PPARγ has been shown to potentially play an important role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses by modulating the activity of monocytes and macrophages. Previous studies have indicated that the phagocytic capacity of porcine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) was enhanced by the culture supernatant fraction from t10c12-CLA-stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but not by t10c12-CLA itself. In the present study, we examined the effects of t10c12-CLA on PPARγ and TNF-α expression of porcine PBMC and the phagocytic capacity of PMN. t10c12-CLA increased TNF-α mRNA expression and production by PBMC. The phagocytic capacity of porcine PMN was enhanced by either culture supernatant fraction from PBMC treated with t10c12-CLA or recombinant porcine (rp) TNF-α. Anti-rpTNF-α polyclonal antibody inhibited the enhancement of PMN phagocytic capacity. t10c12-CLA also up regulated PPARγ mRNA expression in porcine PBMC. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARγ antagonist, not only completely negated the t10c12-CLA-stimulating effects on TNF-α expression and production by porcine PBMC, but also decreased the enhancement of PMN phagocytic capacity by the t10c12-CLA-stimulated porcine PBMC culture supernatant fraction. These results suggest that t10c12-CLA has an immunostimulating effect on porcine PMN phagocytic capacity, which is mediated by TNF-α from PBMC via a PPARγ-dependent pathway.
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