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To estimate the associations of individual maternal social capital and social capital dimensions (Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity) with adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective mother–child cohort (Rhea Study). Participants completed a social capital questionnaire and an FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated through an a priori score ranging from 0 to 8 (minimal–maximal adherence). Maternal social capital scores were categorized into three groups: the upper 10 % was the high social capital group, the middle 80 % was the medium and the lowest 10 % was the low social capital group. Multivariable log-binomial and linear regression models adjusted for confounders were performed.
Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
A total of 377 women with singleton pregnancies.
High maternal Total Social Capital was associated with an increase of almost 1 point in Mediterranean diet score (highest v. lowest group: β coefficient=0·95, 95 % CI 0·23, 1·68), after adjustment for confounders. Similar dose–response effects were noted for the scale Tolerance of Diversity (highest v. lowest group: adjusted β coefficient=1·08, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·77).
Individual social capital and tolerance of diversity are associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in pregnancy. Women with higher social capital may exhibit a higher sense of obligation to themselves and to others that may lead to proactive nutrition-related activities. Less tolerant women may not provide the opportunity to new healthier, but unfamiliar, nutritional recommendations to become part of their regular diet.
For CdTe there is no real distinction between defects and impurities exists when non-shallow dopants are used. These dopants act as beneficial impurities or detrimental carrier trapping centers. Unlike Si, the common assumption that the trap energy level Et is around the middle of the band-gap Ei, is not valid for thin film CdTe. Trap energy levels in CdTe band-gap can distributed with wide range of energy levels above EF. To identify the real role of traps and dopants that limit the solar cell efficiency, a series of samples were investigated in thin film n+-CdS/p-CdTe solar cell, made with evaporated Cu as a primary back contact. It is well known that process temperatures and defect distribution are highly related. This work investigates these shallow level impurities by using temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V-T) and temperature dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V-T) measurements. I-V-T and C-V-T measurements indicate that a large concentration of defects is located in the depletion region. It further suggests that while modest amounts of Cu enhance the cell performance by improving the back contact to CdTe, the high temperature (greater than ∼100°C) process condition degrade device quality and reduce the solar cell efficiency. This is possibly because of the well-established Cu diffusion from the back contact into CdTe. Hence, measurements were performed at lower temperatures (T = 150K to 350K). The observed traps are due to the thermal ionization of impurity centers located in the depletion region of p-CdTe/n+-CdS junction. For our n+-CdS/p-CdTe thin film solar cells, hole traps were observed that are verified by both the measurement techniques. These levels are identical to the observed trap levels by other characterization techniques.
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