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A retrospective study of 383 patients who had undergone either left or right anterior temporal lobectomy (varying with respect to the amount of hippocampus excised) revealed that there were no significant differences in surgical outcome between those patients having a large and those patients having a small hippocampal removal. Although left temporal-lobe excisions were significantly smaller than right temporal-lobe excisions, both medially and laterally, patients with left temporal-lobe removals had an overall better surgical outcome. Patients in the successful surgicaloutcome group did better than the unsuccessful surgical-outcome group on a variety of cognitive measures, including tests of intelligence, delayed verbal memory, and verbal fluency. The results suggest that, for many patients with medically intractable epilepsy, an anterior temporal lobectomy including the amygdala may suffice to reduce their seizure frequency.
This chapter talks about Mary who was admitted to Tertiary Hospital in early June of 2003 having stumbled to the ground being unable to get up. CT of her head confirmed general parenchymal volume loss with decreased attenuation periventricularly. No significant areas of ischemia or space-occupying lesions were noted. PET scan was suggestive of a neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's type. No scan evidence of frontal lobe dementia. The diagnosis prior to the PET scan being performed was frontotemporal dementia. The final clinical diagnosis after the PET scan and on discharge was that of Alzheimer's type dementia. She was not started on acetylcholine esterase therapy. She was discharged to a low level residential facility. This case is interesting in that it does not on face value fit into one category of neurodegenerative disorders. False beliefs related to misinterpretation of the environment due to significant visual impairment is known as Charles-Bonnet syndrome.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development is a landmark study in which
structural and metabolic brain development and behavior are followed
longitudinally from birth to young adulthood in a population-based sample
of healthy children. The neuropsychological assessment protocol for
children aged 6 to 18 years is described and normative data are presented
for participants in that age range (N = 385). For many measures,
raw score performance improved steeply from 6 to 10 years, decelerating
during adolescence. Sex differences were documented for Block Design (male
advantage), CVLT, Pegboard and Coding (female advantage). Household income
predicted IQ and achievement, as well as externalizing problems and social
competence, but not the other cognitive or behavioral measures.
Performance of this healthy sample was generally better than published
norms. This linked imaging-clinical/behavioral database will be an
invaluable public resource for researchers for many years to come.
(JINS, 2007, 13, 729–746.)This project is supported by the National Institute of Child
Health and Human Development (Contract N01-HD02-3343), the National
Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Mental Health (Contract
N01-MH9-0002), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and
Stroke (Contracts N01-NS-9-2314, -2315, -2316, -2317, -2319 and -2320).
The views stated herein do not necessarily represent the official views of
the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and
Human Development, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of
Mental Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke),
or the Department of Health and Human Services, nor any other agency of
the United States government.
Ion exchange of Dion-Jacobson-type double- and triple-layered perovskites with divalent transition-metal halides leads to the templated assembly of metal-anion layers. A whole series of compounds of the form (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) and (CuCl)Ln2Ti2NbO10 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu) have been prepared. Additionally, a new series of host compounds is being developed to exploit this exchange chemistry; the new oxyfluorides, RbLnTiNbO6F (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) and RbLaM'NbO6F (M' = V4+, Mn4+, Nb4+, Mo4+), have been prepared by a direct route.
The construction of metal-anion arrays within Dion-Jacobson-type (DJ) perovskites was studied. A variety of hosts readily react with CuCl2 to produce compounds of the form (CuCl)[A'n-1(M,M')nO3n+1] (A' = alkaline earth, rare earth or Bi; M/M' = Nb, Ta, and/orTi; n = 2, 3). In contrast, CuBr2 only reacts with some of these hosts; this difference relative to the chloride may simply be a size effect. The formation of metal-anion arrays with other transition metals has also been examined. (FeCl)LaNb2O7 can be readily prepared from FeCl2, while reactions with FeBr2and NiCl2 under similar reaction conditions result in compounds of the formM0.5LaNb2O7 (M = Fe, Ni). The reductive intercalation of lithium and sodium into (CuCl)LaNb2O7 was also examined and was found to produce new compounds that have a large layer expansion.
The objective Is to develop processes to treat hazardous waste streams using microwave treatment. First, physical chemical mechanisms have been posited for a variety, of such waste streams including: soils contaminated with organics, and toxic heavy metals; “spent” GAC; organics in the gas phase. Second, feasibility tests are being carried out to determine if on-site field testing is warranted. In the case of microwave-induced steam distillation of volatile and semivolatile organics, pilot plant stuides indicate that the incident power cost is not prohibitive: that fear of prohibitive power costs has been thought to be the major drawback for micrwave treatment to become a competitive technology in this market.
This laboratory is characterizing the mechanisms underlying the potential applications of microwave treatment to the remediation of hazardous waste streams under an Environmental Protection Agency Basic Research grant. Applications that have been investigated encompass the following processes(1-14): volatilization of organics from substrates; ‘chemical fixation’ of non-volatile organics in substrates; ‘chemical fixation’ of heavy metals in substrates; kinetics of decomposition of organics in the gas phase using fixed and ‘lossy’ beds. To-date the work has been carried out on a bench-scale level. Pilot plant studies are now beginning. This paper will focus on studies carried out on non-volatile organics and heavy metals, specifically, chromium.
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