To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Stigma can maintain discrimination and oppression and reduce compassion and understanding. In the area of mental illness and psychological help seeking, stigma acts as a considerable barrier to recovery and adds additional burdens to be managed. This reality has led many different research groups to explore the workings of stigma and ways to intervene to help people who suffer from the stigma associated with mental health problems. We wanted to create a state-of-the-science source for the best research being done in this area and so we organized the Handbook of Stigma and Mental Health. This chapter provides an overview to the Handbook and the excellent research that is reviewed in it. In their chapters, the authors of the Handbook answer four important questions: “What are the forms of mental health stigma?”; “What are impacts of mental health stigma?”; “How can we develop interventions to reduce mental health stigma across contexts?”; “How can we understand the specific ways that mental health stigma impacts different groups (e.g., racial minorities, veterans)?” We hope that asking these questions will stimulate and drive more innovative research in the future.
Stigma is a powerful force that is not easily dismantled. The goal of the Handbook of Stigma and Mental Health is to assist with policy changes, interventions, and movement toward social justice by presenting the breadth and depth of the work on mental health stigma. The authors of the Handbook have provided a deep and more complete picture of what stigma is, how it might develop, and how it might be changed. The authors also have provided a clear picture that stigma cannot be understood in isolation, but rather intersectional and contextual approaches are best. Through the work reviewed by the authors of the Handbook, it is clear that research is still needed to expand on what situations and under what conditions stigmas could be minimized, reduced, buffered, or eliminated. Also, work needs to be done to create culturally affirming approaches to stigma reduction. We believe the work presented in the Handbook provides optimism about the changes that have been made and the progress in our knowledge and interventions. It also provides insights into developing unique perspectives on the field, challenging some of our well-worn ideas, and pushing the limits of our knowledge.
This chapter examines the intersection of stigma and mental health in certain sects of Abrahamic religious traditions (including sects of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism). Research has shown people in many religious communities underutilize mental health services. Although there are numerous reasons for this underutilization, the stigma against mental health professionals and treatment in religious communities – religious mental health stigma – and the historical antagonism of psychologists against religious communities are two major reasons. This chapter reviews these factors and discusses how religious communities and mental health professionals can bridge the schism between their groups. We argue that by understanding the needs of religious communities, working within their worldviews, and engaging in respectful ways, psychological researchers and clinicians can build bridges that surmount stigma and other barriers and promote the best care for people in need.
The persistence of stigma of mental illness and seeking therapy perpetuates suffering and keeps people from getting the help they need and deserve. This volume, analysing the most up-to-date research on this process and ways to intervene, is designed to give those who are working to overcome stigma a strong, research-based foundation for their work. Chapters address stigma reduction efforts at the individual, community, and national levels, and discuss what works and what doesn't. Others explore how holding different stigmatized identities compounds the burden of stigma and suggest ways to attend to these differences. Throughout, there is a focus on the current state of the research knowledge in the field, its applications, and recommendations for future research. The Handbook provides a compelling case for the benefits reaped from current research and intervention, and shows why continued work is needed.
Background: Tubular retractors are FDA approved and in the Neurosurgical marketplace, but adaptation has been hampered by lack of evidence showing superiority over traditional retractors when performing subcortical surgery. This study examines brain injury associated with traditional brain retractors versus tubular retractors. Methods: Nine porcine models underwent a simulated neurosurgical operation. Retractors were inserted for four hours after which the porcine model was euthanized. The en-bloc extracted porcine brain was fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin embedded, sectioned at 4 um and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) using standard laboratory protocols. Computer algorithms were generated to calculate areas of cerebral edema and hemorrhage adjacent to retractor surfaces. Results: Using a two-tailed t-test with a significance level of 0.05, traditional brain retractors were associated with statistically significantly greater cerebral edema when compared to tubular retractors (17.36 um2 vs. 12.42 um2; p = 0.0038). There was no statistically significant difference in mean areas of hemorrhage between traditional brain retractors and tubular retractors noted (3.43 um2 vs 3.60 um2; p = 0.8297). Conclusions: Tubular retractors are associated with significantly less edema in surrounding brain than traditional retractors. On histopathological merits, this study supports the application of tubular retractors over traditional retractors.
The present study examined the differential effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism on neuropsychological functioning in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to orthopedic injury (OI).
Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children who sustained a TBI (n = 69) or OI (n = 72) between 3 and 7 years of age. Children completed a battery of neuropsychological measures targeting attention, memory, and executive functions at four timepoints spanning the immediate post-acute period to 18 months post-injury. Children also completed a comparable age-appropriate battery of measures approximately 7 years post-injury. Parents rated children’s dysexecutive behaviors at all timepoints.
Longitudinal mixed models revealed a significant allele status × injury group interaction with a medium effect size for verbal fluency. Cross-sectional models at 7 years post-injury revealed non-significant but medium effect sizes for the allele status x injury group interaction for fluid reasoning and immediate and delayed verbal memory. Post hoc stratified analyses revealed a consistent pattern of poorer neuropsychological functioning in Met carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes in the TBI group, with small effect sizes; the opposite trend or no appreciable effect was observed in the OI group.
The results suggest a differential effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on verbal fluency, and possibly fluid reasoning and immediate and delayed verbal memory, in children with early TBI relative to OI. The Met allele—associated with reduced activity-dependent secretion of BDNF—may confer risk for poorer neuropsychological functioning in children with TBI.
Localized contamination from research-related activities and its effects on macrofauna communities in the marine environment were investigated at Palmer Station, a medium-sized Antarctic research station. Relatively low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; 32–302 ng g-1) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs; 0.9–8.9 μg g-1) were detected in sediments adjacent to the sewage outfall and pier, where most human activities were expected to have occurred, and at even lower concentrations at two seemingly reference areas (PAHs 6–30 ng g-1, TPHs 0.03–5.1 μg g-1). Elevated concentrations of PAHs in one sample taken in one reference area (816 ng g-1) and polychlorinated biphenyls (353 ng g-1) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (3.2 and 25.3 ng g-1) in two samples taken adjacent to the sewage outfall indicate spatial heterogeneity of localized sediment contamination. Limpet (Nacella concinna) tissues collected adjacent to Palmer Station had high concentrations of PAHs, copper, lead, zinc and several other metals relative to outlying islands. Sediment and limpet tissue contaminant concentrations have decreased since the early 1990s following the Bahía Paraíso spill. Natural sediment characteristics affected macrofaunal community composition more than contamination adjacent to Palmer Station, presumably because of the low overall contamination levels.
Background: Tubular retractors are FDA approved and in the Neurosurgical marketplace, but adaptation has been hampered by lack of evidence showing superiority over traditional retractors when performing subcortical surgery. This study examines brain injury associated with traditional brain retractors versus tubular retractors. Methods: Nine porcine models underwent a simulated neurosurgical operation. Retractors were inserted for four hours after which the porcine model was euthanized. The en-bloc extracted porcine brain was fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin embedded, sectioned at 4 um and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) using standard laboratory protocols. Computer algorithms were generated to calculate areas of cerebral edema and hemorrhage adjacent to retractor surfaces. Results: Using a two-tailed t-test with a significance level of 0.05, traditional brain retractors were associated with statistically significant greater areas of cerebral edema when compared to tubular retractors (17.36 um2 vs. 12.42 um2; p = 0.0038). There was no statistically significant difference in mean areas of hemorrhage between traditional brain retractors and tubular retractors (3.43 um2 vs 3.60 um2; p = 0.8297). Conclusions: Tubular retractors are associated with significantly less edema in surrounding brain than traditional retractors. On histopathological merits, this study supports the application of tubular retractors over traditional retractors.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.