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In this paper, we propose a numerical model to simulate gas–liquid–solid interaction problems, coupling the lattice Boltzmann method and discrete element method (LBM–DEM). A cascaded LBM is used to simulate the liquid–gas flow field using a pseudopotential interaction model for describing the liquid–gas multiphase behaviour. A classical DEM resorting to fictitious overlaps between the particles is used to simulate the multiple-solid-particle system. A multiphase fluid–solid two-way coupling algorithm between LBM and DEM is constructed. The model is validated by four benchmarks: (i) single disc sedimentation, (ii) single floating particle on a liquid–gas interface, (iii) sinking of a horizontal cylinder and (iv) self-assembly of three particles on a liquid–gas interface. Our simulations agree well with the numerical results reported in the literature. Our proposed model is further applied to simulate droplet impact on deformable granular porous media at pore scale. The dynamic droplet spreading process, the deformation of the porous media (composed of up to 1277 solid particles) as well as the invasion of the liquid into the pores are well captured, within a wide range of impact Weber number. The droplet spreading dynamics on particles is analysed based on the energy budget, which reveals mechanisms at play, showing the evolution of particle energy, surface energy and viscous dissipation energy. A scaling relation based on the impact Weber number is proposed to describe the maximum spreading ratio.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Political marriage is an under-investigated form of social capital for family firms. In this study, we examine the relationship between political marriage and the growth of family firms. We analyze this relationship using survey data from parent–child dyads of 164 family firms in mainland China, along with qualitative data from eight semi-structured interviews. Drawing on social capital theory and self-verification theory, we propose that political marriage makes a significant contribution to the growth of family firms. We further propose that the effects of a political marriage on firm growth are moderated by the duration of the marriage and the degree of romantic love experienced by the couples. We find that the positive relationship between political marriage and firm growth is stronger when the duration of the marriage is longer. Our results also reveal a three-way interaction effect of political marriage, length of marriage, and romantic love on firm growth. In this interaction, the positive effect of political marriage is strongest when the marriage is long and the degree of romantic love is low (rather than high). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
This study was aimed to investigate whether EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA), the representative n-3 or n-6 PUFA, could alleviate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88-induced inflammation and injury of intestinal porcine epithelial cells 1 (IPEC-1) by modulating pyroptosis and necroptosis signalling pathways. IPEC-1 cells were cultured with or without EPA or ARA in the presence or absence of ETEC K88. EPA and ARA reduced ETEC K88 adhesion and endotoxin content in the supernatant. EPA and ARA increased transepithelial electrical resistance, decreased permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled dextran, increased membrane protein expression of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 and relieved disturbed distribution of these proteins. EPA and ARA also reduced cell necrosis ratio. EPA or ARA reduced mRNA and concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 and decreased mRNA abundances of intestinal toll-like receptors 4 and its downstream signals. Moreover, EPA and ARA downregulated mRNA expression of nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase 1 and IL-18 and inhibited protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), gasdermin D and caspase-1. Finally, EPA and ARA reduced mRNA expression of fas-associated death domain protein, caspase 8, receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 1, mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5), motility-related protein 1 (Drp1) and high mobility protein 1 (HMGB1) and inhibited protein expression of phosphorylated-RIP1, p-RIP3, p-MLKL and HMGB1. These data demonstrate that EPA and ARA prevent ETEC K88-induced cell inflammation and injury, which is partly through inhibiting pyroptosis and necroptosis signalling pathways.
This study assessed the molecular mechanism of EPA or DHA protection against intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA + DON group and the DHA + DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+ and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.
In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG.
Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS.
We studied 2468 women aged 18–80 years from the CHNS.
We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=−0·68; 95 % CI −1·22, −0·14; P<0·05). The snack pattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; P<0·05). The Western pattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; P<0·01) and LDL-C (β=2·26; 95 % CI 0·86, 3·66; P<0·01).
We identified three dietary patterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.
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