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In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
The clean and ordered surfaces of CdZnTe (111)B grown by the Bridgman method were obtained by Ar ion bombardment and thermal annealing in situ in an ultrahigh vacuum. The surface atomic structures of CdZnTe (111)B after annealing at different temperature were observed by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The valence band and work function of CdZnTe (111)B surfaces were determined by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The order of CdZnTe (111)B after annealing at 350 °C will worsen, and the (111)B-(2 × 2) local reconstruction will be formed. The work function of CdZnTe (111)B after annealing at 350 °C is 0.8 eV higher than that of CdZnTe (111)B-(1 × 1), and the local reconstruction may be induced by Te adatoms on top of the ideal truncation.
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