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Maximizing the energy-loading performance of gratings is a universal theme in high-energy pulse compression. However, sporadic grating designs strongly restrict the development of high-power laser engineering. This study proposes an all- and mixed-dielectric grating design paradigm for Nd:glass-based pulse compressors. The solution regions are classified according to the line density. High diffraction efficiency solutions are described in more detail based on the dispersion amount and incident angle. Moreover, an energy scaling factor of 7.09 times larger than that of the National Ignition Facility’s Advanced Radiographic Capability (NIF-ARC) is obtained by taking advantage of the low electric field intensity at transverse magnetic polarization and a small incident angle. These results make a pioneering contribution to facilitate future 20–50-petawatt-class ultrafast laser systems.
In this paper, a 2D angle amplifier based on peristrophic multiplexed volume Bragg gratings is designed and prepared, in which a calculation method is firstly proposed to optimize the number of channels to a minimum. The induction of peristrophic multiplexing reduces the performance difference in one bulk of the grating, whereas there is no need to deliberately optimize the fabrication process. It is revealed that a discrete 2D angle deflection range of ±30° is obtained and the relative diffraction efficiency of all the grating channels reaches more than 55% with a root-mean-square deviation of less than 3.4% in the same grating. The deviation of the Bragg incidence and exit angles from the expected values is less than 0.07°. It is believed that the proposed 2D angle amplifier has the potential to realize high-performance and large-angle beam steering in high-power laser beam scanning systems.
The oxidation behavior of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders synthesized by combustion synthesis was investigated in flowing air by means of simultaneous thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy, with an effect of powder size. The oxidation of the fine Ti2AlC powders with the size of about 1 μm starts at 300 °C and completes at 980 °C, while with increasing the powder size around 10 μm the corresponding temperature increases to 400 and 1040 °C, respectively. The oxidation of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders is controlled by surface reaction in 400–600 °C, and mainly diffusion in 600–900 °C, with the corresponding oxidation activation energy of 2.35 eV and 0.12 eV, respectively. In other words, the critical temperature of changing oxidation controlling step is around 600 °C. The oxidation products were mainly rutile-TiO2 and α-Al2O3. The tiny white flocculent particles of α-Al2O3 appeared on the surface of fine Ti2AlC powders and increased with increasing the oxidation temperature.
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