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Deliberative democracy is well-suited to the challenges of governing in the Anthropocene. But deliberative democratic practices are only suited to these challenges to the extent that five prerequisites – empoweredness, embeddedness, experimentality, equivocality, and equitableness – are successfully institutionalized. Governance must be: created by those it addresses, applicable equally to all, capable of learning from (and adapting to) experience, rationally grounded, and internalized by those who adopt and experience it. This book analyzes these five major normative principles, pairing each with one of the Earth System Governance Project's analytical problems to provide an in-depth discussion of the minimal conditions for environmental governance that can be truly sustainable. It is ideal for scholars and graduate students in global environmental politics, earth system governance, and international environmental policy. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
Finding a balance between cooperative or prosocial behavior – such as social bonding and empathy – and conflict – or competitive-aggressive, self-interested behavior – is the fundamental challenge to the operation of societies and to the behavior of individuals in a social setting. But how do these apparent opposites relate to one other? As would many social or behavioral scientists, we initially approached this with the idea that they are two separate functions that need to be balanced against each other to varying degrees to construct a functioning social entity, and to some extent this holds true. But independently of one another, the contributing authors to this volume advanced a more sophisticated view of the relationship; that the poles of social interaction are in fact interconnected to the extent that what we view as antisocial or aggressive behavior are fundamental to establishing and maintaining positive or prosocial behavior within groups or individuals.
One of the foundational approaches to the evolution of behavior is the comparative approach. The underlying logic is to use similarities and differences across species to draw conclusions about the evolution of the trait in question, with the assumption that similar selective pressures lead to similar traits. When using this approach to understand humans, a natural starting place is the other primates, as we are primates ourselves. But this is not the only approach; we may also wish to know what the impact of a specific feature is, in which case we will focus on other species that have the same feature independent of phylogeny, or share a particular ecological or social niche. Convergences across disparate taxa may suggest the ways in which the trait in question is linked to a specific behavioral outcome.
Understanding the interaction between cooperation and conflict in establishing effective social behaviour is a fundamental challenge facing societies. Reflecting the breadth of current research in this area, this volume brings together experts from biology to political science to examine the cooperation–conflict interface at multiple levels, from genes to human societies. Exploring both the exciting new directions and the biggest challenges in their fields, the authors focus on identifying commonalities across species and disciplines to help understand what features are shared broadly and what are limited to specific contexts. Each chapter is written to be accessible to students and researchers from interdisciplinary backgrounds, with text boxes explaining terminology and concepts that may not be familiar across disciplinary boundaries, while being a valuable resource to experts in their fields.
Numerous empirical studies have examined the role of third-party peacekeeping in reducing violence around the world. Their results reveal an extraordinary relationship between peacekeepers and peace, notwithstanding a number of well-known problems. This review article has three goals. The first is to summarize the results of past empirical research to move the debate beyond the question of whether peacekeeping works to the more pressing questions of how, when and why it works. The second is to reveal the limitations of the current quantitative research in order to identify areas in which scholars can make big, new contributions to the field. The final goal is to propose a new research agenda that is heavily evaluative – one that informs policy makers about the specific practices, mission compositions, and mandates that work, and identifies the local, regional, and international conditions that amplify or diminish peacekeeping's effectiveness. This type of research could help reduce the costs of peacekeeping operations, eliminate some of the negative consequences of interventions and save even more lives.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
Environmental rights are a category of human rights necessarily central to both democracy and effective earth system governance (any environmental-ecological-sustainable democracy). For any democracy to remain democratic, some aspects must be beyond democracy and must not be allowed to be subjected to any ordinary democratic collective choice processes shy of consensus. Real, established rights constitute a necessary boundary of legitimate everyday democratic practice. We analyze how human rights are made democratically and, in particular, how they can be made with respect to matters environmental, especially matters that have import beyond the confines of the modern nation state.
La schizophrénie reste une pathologie invalidante malgré une prise en charge médicamenteuse efficace. Il importe de développer d’autres stratégies adjuvantes efficaces sur les symptômes de la maladie en limitant les effets secondaires des traitements pharmacologiques. L’efficacité des activités physiques dans le traitement de la schizophrénie n’est pas démontrée mais des travaux soulignent des bénéfices sur les symptômes négatifs et dépressifs [1,2].
Nous souhaitons évaluer l’impact clinique d’un programme d’activité physique sur une population de sujets atteints de schizophrénie.
Un programme d’activités physiques supervisé par deux moniteurs a été élaboré. Il comprend une heure de multi-activités, 2 fois par semaine, pendant 12 semaines. L’intensité minimale de chaque séance était fixée à 50 % de la fréquence cardiaque de réserve. Des mesures comprenant les échelles PANSS, SANS, SAPS, CDSS, S-QoL, un bilan anthropométrique et biologique ont été réalisés à S 0, S 6, S 12 et S 16.
Deux groupes de 5 patients (n = 10) ont réalisé le programme. Une amélioration clinique est retrouvée sur l’ensemble des échelles utilisées entre S 0 et S 16. Les changements observés ne sont pas en faveur d’une amélioration du syndrome métabolique et nous notons une prise de poids des sujets sur la période de l’étude. Le traitement statistique des données présente des résultats non significatifs (p > 0,05).
In migrants, alcohol becomes a frequent problem in particular from the age of 50 onwards. Preventive behaviour is influenced by cultural differences in terms of how alcohol consumption is evaluated and dealt with. But migrants are not sufficiently reached by offers of help in combating addiction. Aim of the study was to improve the sensitisation regarding alcohol consumption.
Cluster-randomized controlled multicenter study with immigrants (n = 268) comparing a transcultural prevention measurement (one event and migration sensitive transcultural brochures; TPC) against an usual prevention measurement (event and information brochure; TAU). Main outcomes were attitudes towards alcohol and alcohol consumption after 6 months.
Overall the immigrants accept the transcultural prevention concept better (TPC > TAU; p = .023). Attitudes towards alcohol are more difficult to change. Only regarding talking openly about alcohol problems (TPC > TAU; p = .021) and willingness to seek for help (TPC > TAU; p = .001) we found an effect of the TPC. 6 months after the participants in TPC reduced their alcohol consumption markedly (I drink less/I don't drink at all: TPC 45,9% vs. TAU 16,7%; p = .004).
The consideration of cultural, migration-related and linguistic factors in health care is important to change health related behaviour. Therefore the sensitization of health care providers for transcultural perspectives and diversity is necessary.
Alcohol dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder.
To investigate the role of temperament on the course of alcohol dependence.
To further investigate the role of temperaments in alcohol dependent patients and to analyse the differences in relevant clinical features in correlation with the different temperament distributions.
The patients‘case files of 116 alcohol dependent patients, according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR, admitted to the Vienna General Hospital between 02/08 and 03/09, were examined retrospectively. The brief-TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire was used to assess the temperamental distribution. The dimensions of alcohol dependence have been assessed using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology, a computerized structured interview. The potential effect of temperamental scores on various outcomes describing the course of illness is investigated using multi-variable regression models.
Cyclothymic score was the only temperament which significantly influenced the age of onset of alcohol abuse and age of onset of alcohol dependence. Backward selection among temperaments exhibits depressive temperament as most important effect regarding the likelihood of suicide-attempts in the patient‘s case history and anxious temperament as most important effect regarding having psychiatric treatment focusing on alcohol dependence prior to current in- or outpatient stay.
Dominant cyclothymic, but also depressive and anxious temperament, seem to be negative predictors for the course of illness in alcohol dependence.
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a frequently and effectively used treatment in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Other than First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), which mainly exert their pharmacologic effect in subcortical dopaminergic systems, SGAs additionally affect partly serotonergically innervated structures within prefrontal areas, such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). However, only few controlled, randomized studies have so far investigated direct and indirect effects of SGAs on the ACC.
The present study investigated differential effects of one SGA (quetiapine) and one FGA (flupentixol) on the human action monitoring system.
ACC function in 18 quetiapine-medicated patients and 13 flupentixol-treated patients suffering from schizophrenia was assessed by means of the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological marker of ACC function, in a pre-post design. Results Between-group comparisons revealed different effects of quetiapine and flupentixol on ACC function despite similar improvement in psychopathology, cognitive performance and quality of life. Whereas SGA treatment was associated with an increase in amplitudes over time, there were prolonged ERN peak latencies in patients treated with the FGA. Moreover, treatment effects depended on baseline PFC function in both groups.
We conclude that both flupentixol and quetiapine improve prefrontal function especially in patients with weak initial ACC function which might be due to their shared affinity for 5HT-receptors in frontal brain regions. However, since this affinity is more pronounced for SGAs, patients treated with quetiapine seemed to profit more evidently concerning PFC function compared to patients of the flupentixol group, who exhibited a compensatory prolongation of processes.