To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To estimate usual diets among Brazilian children regarding the consumption of school meals and social vulnerability risks.
A cross-sectional study. School meal consumers were considered those children who reported consuming school meals ≥3 times/week. Social vulnerability risk was classified by an index. Dietary intake was evaluated by one 24 h dietary recall for the whole sample; a second 24 h dietary recall was administered in a sub-sample (38·6 %). The National Cancer Institute’s method was used to estimate children’s usual intake of nutrients and food groups.
Municipal public schools from Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Children (n 1357) aged 8–12 years.
Half of the sample lived in low/medium social vulnerability risk areas and 27·9 % were school meal non-consumers. School meal consumers more frequently lived in high/very high social vulnerability risk areas (76·2 v. 68·7 %). Children with low/medium social vulnerability risk had a higher mean intake of thiamin (1·13 v. 1·04 mg) and a lower mean intake of candy (1·35 v. 1·42 g). Consumption of school meals among children under high/very high social vulnerability risk was associated with higher mean consumption of vitamin C (31·9 v. 24·1 mg), unprocessed/minimally processed foods (956·3 v. 851·9 g), fruits (128·5 v. 90·9 g) and vegetables (58·2 v. 47·1 g). Ultra-processed food product consumption was lower among school meal consumers (136·2 v. 187·7 g), especially ultra-processed beverages (252·5 v. 305·7 g).
Consuming school meals was associated with a better usual diet quality, particularly among those with higher social vulnerability risk.
To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes.
Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %.
Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008–2009.
Feasible solution to the model was not found when all constraints were imposed; infeasible nutrients were Ca, vitamins D and E, Mg, Zn, fibre, linolenic acid, monounsaturated fat and Na. Feasible solution was obtained after relaxing the nutritional constraints for these limiting nutrients by including a deviation variable in the model. Estimated prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was reduced by 60–70 % for most nutrients, and mean saturated and trans-fat decreased in the optimized diet meeting the model constraints. Optimized diet was characterized by increases especially in fruits (+92 g), beans (+64 g), vegetables (+43 g), milk (+12 g), fish and seafood (+15 g) and whole cereals (+14 g), and reductions of sugar-sweetened beverages (−90 g), rice (−63 g), snacks (−14 g), red meat (−13 g) and processed meat (−9·7 g).
Linear programming is a unique tool to identify which changes in the current diet can increase nutrient intake and place the population at lower risk of nutrient inadequacy. Reaching nutritional adequacy for all nutrients would require major dietary changes in the Brazilian diet.
The present communication reports a strategy to calculate the intake of Fe based on data available for folic acid and evaluate the programme of flour fortification in Brazil.
Cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil during 2008 and 2009. A 2d dietary record of individuals was used. The usual intake of folic acid by sex and age group was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. The quantity of folic acid and Fe established by mandatory food fortification in Brazil was used, and based on that quantity we calculated the amount of flour consumed and the intake of Fe from fortification and Fe from food. Then, the absorption of each nutrient was calculated.
Brazilian households (n 16 764).
Individuals (men and women, n 34 003, aged 10 to 60+ years) from a Brazilian nationwide survey.
Mean intake and absorption of Fe from fortification (electrolytic Fe) was low in men and women.
The impact from the consumption of fortified products is small in relation to Fe intake in Brazil. The strategy proposed to estimate Fe intake from the fortification programme indicates that the amount of flour intake observed in Brazil does not justify the current ranges of mandatory flour fortification and the form of Fe that is mainly used (electrolytic Fe).
To evaluate the association between eating away from home and BMI and to examine whether dietary intake differs based on the consumption of away-from-home food (AFHF).
Data were obtained from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, using food records. The association between the percentage of energy provided by foods consumed away from home and BMI status was tested using logistic regression models. The mean percentages of energy provided by protein, fat, saturated fat and free sugars were calculated based on the consumption of foods away from home among AFHF consumers.
Urban areas of Brazil.
Adults (n 13 736) between 25 and 65 years old.
AFHF was not associated with BMI status. Individuals who consumed AFHF had higher intakes of free sugars away from home than at home and had higher intakes of energy-dense foods than AFHF non-consumers.
Although AFHF consumption was not related to overweight or obesity status, individuals who consumed foods away from home had higher intakes of energy-dense foods. Public health policies should be implemented to help people make healthier food choices away from home.
To verify associations of income and education with nutrient intakes in Brazilian adults.
Data from the population-based National Dietary Survey conducted in 2008–2009. Family per capita income and education levels were categorized into quartiles. Prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes and excessive intakes of saturated fat and Na were calculated by using the method prescribed by the National Cancer Institute. The Estimated Average Requirement was used as a reference for micronutrient intake. Linear regression models for both the independent and the mutually adjusted associations of education and income with nutrient intakes were tested. Interaction between education and income was tested.
Households (n 13 569) selected using a two-stage cluster sampling design.
Food records for two non-consecutive days were obtained for 21 003 Brazilian adults (aged 20–59 years).
For most of eleven nutrients, the prevalence of inadequate intake declined with increasing income and education levels; however, it remained high across all income and education quartiles. Excessive intake of saturated fat and low fibre intake increased with both variables. Most nutrients were independently associated with income and education in both sexes. Fe, vitamin B12 and Na intakes among women were associated only with education. There was an interaction between income and education for Na intake in men, P intake in women and Ca intake in both sexes.
Education is one important step to improve nutrient intakes in Brazil. Emphasis should be laid on enhancing dietary knowledge and formulating economic strategies that would allow lower-income individuals to adopt a healthy diet.
To estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among adolescents and the association between socio-economic variables and nutritional status.
Cross-sectional study with a population-based sample.
The usual nutrient intake distribution was estimated using the Iowa State University method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point method was used to determine the proportion of adolescents with inadequate intake for each nutrient, according to sex, income, parental educational level and nutritional status.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were applied in 525 male and female Brazilian adolescents aged 14–18 years.
The highest prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was observed for vitamin E (99 % in both sexes). For male and female adolescents, the prevalence of inadequate intake was: Mg, 89 % and 84 %; vitamin A, 78 % and 71 %; vitamin C, 79 % and 53 %; and vitamin B6, 21 % and 33 %, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate intake for niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, Se, Cu and vitamin B12 was <15 %. Individuals in the lower income and lower parental educational level strata had the highest risk of having inadequate intake for P, riboflavin and vitamins A, B6 and B12. Compared with non-overweight individuals, overweight individuals had a higher risk of inadequate intake for Mg, vitamin A, P, thiamin and riboflavin.
The present study found a high prevalence of inadequate intake of nutrients that are recognised as being protective against chronic diseases. Adolescents in the lower income and lower parental educational level strata were less likely to have their nutrient intake requirements met.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.