To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Global warming is likely to lengthen the seasonal duration of larval release by parasites. We exposed freshwater mussel hosts, Anodonta anatina, from 2 high-latitude populations to high, intermediate and low temperatures throughout the annual cercarial shedding period of the sympatric trematodes Rhipidocotyle fennica and R. campanula, sharing the same transmission pathway. At the individual host level, under warmer conditions, the timing of the cercarial release in both parasite species shifted towards seasonally earlier period while its duration did not change. At the host population level, evidence for the lengthening of larvae shedding period with warming was found for R. fennica. R. campanula started the cercarial release seasonally clearly earlier, and at a lower temperature, than R. fennica. Furthermore, the proportion of mussels shedding cercariae increased, while day-degrees required to start the cercariae shedding decreased in high-temperature treatment in R. fennica. In R. campanula these effects were not found, suggesting that warming can benefit more R. fennica. These results do not completely support the view that climate warming would invariably increase the seasonal duration of larval shedding by parasites, but emphasizes species-specific differences in temperature-dependence and in seasonality of cercarial release.
Temperature and intraspecific competition are important factors influencing the growth of all organisms, including parasites. The temperature increase is suggested to stimulate the development of parasites within poikilothermic hosts. However, at high parasite densities, this effect could be diminished, due to stronger intraspecific competition. Our study, for the first time, addressed the joint effects of warming and parasite abundances on parasite growth in poikilothermic hosts. The growth of the common fish parasite larvae (trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum) within the rainbow trout at different infection intensities and temperatures (15°C and 18°C) was experimentally investigated. The results showed that temperature was positively correlated with both parasite infection success and growth rates. The growth rates increased much more compared to those in many free-living poikilothermic animals. Atypically for a majority of parasites, D. pseudospathaceum larvae grow faster when abundant (Allee effect). The possible causes for this phenomenon (manipulation cost sharing, etc.) are discussed in this study. Importantly, limited evidence of the interaction between temperature and population density was found. It is likely that temperature did not change the magnitude of the Allee effect but affected its timing. The impact of these effects is supposed to become more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems under current climate changes.
Removal of parasite free-living stages by predators has previously been suggested an important factor controlling parasite transmission in aquatic habitats. Experimental studies of zooplankton predation on macroparasite larvae are, however, scarce. We tested whether trematode cercariae, which are often numerous in shallow waters, are suitable prey for syntopic zooplankters. Feeding rates and survival of freshwater cyclopoids (Megacyclops viridis, Macrocyclops distinctus), calanoids (Arctodiaptomus paulseni), cladocerans (Sida crystallina) and rotifers Asplanchna spp., fed with cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, a common fish trematode, were studied. In additional long-term experiments, we studied reproduction of cyclopoids fed with cercariae. All tested zooplankton species consumed cercariae. The highest feeding rates were observed for cyclopoids (33 ± 12 cercariae ind−1 h−1), which actively reproduced (up to one egg clutch day−1) when fed ad libitum with cercariae. Their reproductive characteristics did not change significantly with time, indicating that cercariae supported cyclopoids’ dietary needs. Mortality of rotifers and cladocerans was high (25–28% individuals) when exposed to cercariae in contrast to cyclopoids and calanoids (<2%). Cercariae clogged the filtration apparatus of cladocerans and caused internal injuries in predatory rotifers, which ingested cercariae. Observed trophic links between common freshwater zooplankters and cercariae may significantly influence food webs and parasite transmission in lentic ecosystems.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.