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Understanding the effects of acute feeding on body composition and metabolic measures is essential to the translational component and practical application of measurement and clinical use. To investigate the influence of acute feeding on the validity of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a four-compartment model (4C) and indirect calorimetry metabolic outcomes, thirty-nine healthy young adults (n 19 females; age: 21·8 (sd 3·1) years, weight; 71·5 (sd 10·0) kg) participated in a randomised cross-over study. Subjects were provided one of four randomised meals on separate occasions (high carbohydrate, high protein, ad libitum or fasted baseline) prior to body composition and metabolic assessments. Regardless of macronutrient content, acute feeding increased DXA percent body fat (%fat) for the total sample and females (average constant error (CE):–0·30 %; total error (TE): 2·34 %), although not significant (P = 0·062); the error in males was minimal (CE: 0·11 %; TE: 0·86 %). DXA fat mass (CE: 0·26 kg; TE: 0·75 kg) and lean mass (LM) (CE: 0·83 kg; TE: 1·23 kg) were not altered beyond measurement error for the total sample. 4C %fat was significantly impacted from all acute feedings (avg CE: 0·46 %; TE: 3·7 %). 4C fat mass (CE: 0·71 kg; TE: 3·38 kg) and fat-free mass (CE: 0·55 kg; TE: 3·05 kg) exceeded measurement error for the total sample. RMR was increased for each feeding condition (TE: 1666·9 kJ/d; 398 kcal/d). Standard pre-testing fasting guidelines may be important when evaluating DXA and 4C %fat, whereas additional DXA variables (fat mass and LM) may not be significantly impacted by an acute meal. Measuring body composition via DXA under less stringent pre-testing guidelines may be valid and increase feasibility of testing in clinical settings.
Verbal memory deficits are linked to cannabis use. However, self-reported episodic use does not allow for assessment of variance from other factors (e.g., cannabis potency, route of consumption) that are important for assessing brain-behavior relationships. Further, co-occurring nicotine use may moderate the influence of cannabis on cognition. Here we utilized objective urinary measurements to assess the relationship between metabolites of cannabis, 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), and nicotine (cotinine) on verbal memory in young adults.
Adolescents and young adults (n = 103) aged 16–22 completed urinary drug testing and verbal memory assessment (RAVLT). Linear regressions examined the influence of THCCOOH and cotinine quantitative concentrations, and their interaction, on RAVLT scores, controlling for demographics and alcohol. Cannabis intake frequency was also investigated. Secondary analyses examined whether past month or recency of use related to performance, while controlling for THCCOOH and cotinine concentrations.
THCCOOH concentration related to both poorer total learning and long delay recall. Cotinine concentration related to poorer short delay recall. Higher frequency cannabis use status was associated with poorer initial learning and poorer short delay. When comparing to self-report, THCCOOH and cotinine concentrations were negatively related to learning and memory performance, while self-report was not.
Results confirm the negative relationship between verbal memory and cannabis use, extending findings with objective urinary THCCOOH, and cotinine concentration measurements. No moderating relationship with nicotine was found, though cotinine concentration independently associated with negative short delay performance. Findings support the use of both urinary and self-report metrics as complementary methods in substance use research.
Children born very preterm (VP) display altered growth in corticolimbic structures compared with full-term peers. Given the association between the cortiocolimbic system and anxiety, this study aimed to compare developmental trajectories of corticolimbic regions in VP children with and without anxiety diagnosis at 13 years.
MRI data from 124 VP children were used to calculate whole brain and corticolimbic region volumes at term-equivalent age (TEA), 7 and 13 years. The presence of an anxiety disorder was assessed at 13 years using a structured clinical interview.
VP children who met criteria for an anxiety disorder at 13 years (n = 16) displayed altered trajectories for intracranial volume (ICV, p < 0.0001), total brain volume (TBV, p = 0.029), the right amygdala (p = 0.0009) and left hippocampus (p = 0.029) compared with VP children without anxiety (n = 108), with trends in the right hippocampus (p = 0.062) and left medial orbitofrontal cortex (p = 0.079). Altered trajectories predominantly reflected slower growth in early childhood (0–7 years) for ICV (β = −0.461, p = 0.020), TBV (β = −0.503, p = 0.021), left (β = −0.518, p = 0.020) and right hippocampi (β = −0.469, p = 0.020) and left medial orbitofrontal cortex (β = −0.761, p = 0.020) and did not persist after adjusting for TBV and social risk.
Region- and time-specific alterations in the development of the corticolimbic system in children born VP may help to explain an increase in anxiety disorders observed in this population.
The incidence of airway obstruction in patients with complex CHD other than vascular rings and absent pulmonary valve syndrome is unknown. We reviewed pre-operative CT and clinical data of children with conotruncal abnormalities to assess for airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was common (41% of patients), often moderate to severe, of diverse aetiology, and most commonly associated with a right aortic arch. Patients with airway obstruction showed a trend towards a higher mortality rate. Patients with complex conotruncal abnormalities should be assessed for airway obstruction as it may help predict the need for additional interventions and assist with prognostication.
To determine whether racial/ethnic differences exist for the treatment of Marfan syndrome aortopathy. The 2014 Pediatric Heart Network randomised trial of losartan versus atenolol in Marfan syndrome paediatric and young adult patients showed no treatment differences in the rate of aortic root growth over 3 years; however, they did not examine racial/ethnic differences, and recent data suggest that angiotensin receptor blockers may have different pharmacologic effects in different racial/ethnic populations.
We performed a secondary analysis of public-use data from the Pediatric Heart Network randomised trial comparing the differences by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic patients) amongst the treatment groups for the primary outcome of rate of aortic root enlargement by z score and secondary outcome of rate of change of absolute diameter of aortic root, z score and absolute diameter of ascending aorta, and blood pressure changes.
For aortic root enlargement by z score amongst non-Hispanic White patients, patients on losartan exhibited an annual z score change of –0.090 ± 0.016, compared to –0.146 ± 0.015 for those on atenolol (p = 0.01), favouring atenolol. For Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black patients, there was no difference in primary or secondary outcomes between treatment groups.
Non-Hispanic White patients had a small, but statistically significantly greater decrease in aortic root z score favouring atenolol over losartan. There were no significant differences amongst Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black patients, which may be due to relatively small size numbers. These findings may have important implications for medication selection by race/ethnicity in Marfan syndrome patients, which has not previously been evaluated in studies.
The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the general population is common and is now diagnosed in 4%–12% of children. Children with CHD have been shown to be at increased risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Case reports have led to concern regarding the use of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications in children with underlying CHD. We hypothesised that medical therapy for patients with CHD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is safe.
A single-centre, retrospective chart review was performed evaluating for adverse events in patients aged 4–21 years with CHD who received attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapy over a 5-year span. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of CHD and concomitant medical therapy with amphetamines, methylphenidate, or atomoxetine. Patients with trivial or spontaneously resolved CHD were excluded from analysis.
In 831 patients with CHD who received stimulants with a mean age of 12.9 years, there was only one adverse cardiovascular event identified. Using sensitivity analysis, our median follow-up time was 686 days and a prevalence rate of 0.21% of adverse events. This episode consisted of increased frequency of supraventricular tachycardia in a patient who had this condition prior to initiation of medical therapy; the condition improved with discontinuation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapy.
The incidence of significant adverse cardiovascular events in our population was similar to the prevalence of supraventricular tachycardia in the general population. Our single-centre experience demonstrated no increased risk in adverse events related to medical therapy for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and underlying CHD. Further population-based studies are indicated to validate these findings.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect for infants born in the United States, with approximately 36,000 affected infants born annually. While mortality rates for children with CHD have significantly declined, there is a growing population of individuals with CHD living into adulthood prompting the need to optimise long-term development and quality of life. For infants with CHD, pre- and post-surgery, there is an increased risk of developmental challenges and feeding difficulties. Feeding challenges carry profound implications for the quality of life for individuals with CHD and their families as they impact short- and long-term neurodevelopment related to growth and nutrition, sensory regulation, and social-emotional bonding with parents and other caregivers. Oral feeding challenges in children with CHD are often the result of medical complications, delayed transition to oral feeding, reduced stamina, oral feeding refusal, developmental delay, and consequences of the overwhelming intensive care unit (ICU) environment. This article aims to characterise the disruptions in feeding development for infants with CHD and describe neurodevelopmental factors that may contribute to short- and long-term oral feeding difficulties.
This article aims to: (1) describe the ‘Return to Open Pharmacy Operations’ in Puerto Rico following the hurricanes Irma and Maria in the 2017 hurricane season, and (2) compare the recovery rate (Return to Open Pharmacy Operations) during the 2017 hurricane season between the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the state of Florida.
We performed a cross-sectional study of pharmacy operations in Puerto Rico utilizing Rx Open data for pharmacies in Puerto Rico during the 2017 hurricane season. To compare open rates of pharmacy operations over time in different contexts, we also analyzed Rx Open data for the state of Florida for Hurricane Irma.
Only 11.1% of pharmacies remained open in Puerto Rico 3 days after Hurricane Maria made landfall, and Puerto Rico pharmacy operations recovered slowly, at an average daily rate of 3.9% before reaching pre-landfall baseline operations. Puerto Rico pharmacy operations after Hurricane Maria recovered 10 times slower on average, compared to pharmacy operations in Florida after Hurricane Irma which reached baseline operations less than 1 week following Hurricane Irma’s landfall.
Our results demonstrate the unique severity of Hurricane Maria’s impacts on Puerto Rico’s health system.
To investigate hospital room and patient-level risk factors associated with increased risk of healthcare-facility–onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI).
The study used a retrospective cohort design that included patient data from the institution’s electronic health record, existing surveillance data on HO-CDI, and a walk-through survey of hospital rooms to identify potential room-level risk factors. The primary outcome was HO-CDI diagnosis.
A large academic medical center.
Patients and participants:
All adult patients admitted between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Prisoners were excluded. Patients who only stayed in rooms that were not surveyed were excluded.
The hospital room survey collected room-level data on 806 rooms. Included in the study were 17,034 patients without HO-CDI and 251 with HO-CDI nested within 535 unique rooms. In this exploratory study, room-level risk factors associated with the outcome in the multivariate model included wear on furniture and flooring and antibiotic use by the prior room occupant. Hand hygiene devices and fixed in-room computers were associated with reduced odds of a HO-CDI. Differences between hospital buildings were also detected. The only individual patient factors that were associated with increased odds of HO-CDI were antibiotic use and comorbidity score.
Combining a hospital-room walk-through data collection survey, EHR data, and CDI surveillance data, we were able to develop a model to investigate room and patient-level risks for HO-CDI.
Advanced cancer patients who are parents of minor children experience heightened psychosocial distress. Oncology social workers (OSWs) are essential providers of psychosocial support to parents with advanced cancer. Yet, little is known about the experiences and approaches of OSWs in addressing these patients’ unique needs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the attitudes, practice behaviors, and training experiences of OSWs who provide psychosocial care for advanced cancer patients with minor children.
Forty-one OSWs participated in a cross-sectional survey addressing multiple facets of their psychosocial care for parents with advanced cancer. The five assessed domains of psychosocial support were communication support, emotional support, household support, illness and treatment decision-making support, and end-of-life planning.
Participants reported greatest confidence in counseling patients on communication with children about illness and providing support to co-parents about parenting concerns. OSWs reported less confidence in counseling parents on end-of-life issues and assisting families with non-traditional household structures. The majority of participants reported needing more time in their clinical practice to sufficiently address parents’ psychosocial needs. Nearly 90% of participants were interested in receiving further training on the care of parents with advanced cancer.
Significance of results
To improve the care of parents with advanced cancer, it is critical to understand how the psychosocial oncology workforce perceives its clinical practice needs. Study findings suggest an opportunity for enhanced training, particularly with respect to end-of-life needs and in response to the changing household structure of American families.
Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is commonly administered in orthopedic procedures. Research regarding SAP appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures is limited and is required to facilitate targeted orthopedic prescriber behavior change.
To describe SAP prescribing and appropriateness for orthopedic procedures in Australian hospitals.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter, national, quality improvement study with retrospective analysis of data collected from Australian hospitals via Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (Surgical NAPS) audits from January 1, 2016, to April 15, 2019, were analyzed.
Logistic regression identified hospital, patient and surgical factors associated with appropriateness. Adjusted appropriateness was calculated from the multivariable model. Additional subanalyses were conducted on smaller subsets to calculate the adjusted appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures.
In total, 140 facilities contributed to orthopedic audits in the Surgical NAPS, including 4,032 orthopedic surgical episodes and 6,709 prescribed doses. Overall appropriateness was low, 58.0% (n = 3,894). This differed for prescribed procedural (n = 3,978, 64.7%) and postprocedural doses (n = 2,731, 48.3%). The most common reasons for inappropriateness, when prophylaxis was required, was timing for procedural doses (50.9%) and duration for postprocedural prescriptions (49.8%). The adjusted appropriateness of each orthopedic procedure group was low for procedural SAP (knee surgery, 54.1% to total knee joint replacement, 74.1%). The adjusted appropriateness for postprocedural prescription was also low (from hand surgery, 40.7%, to closed reduction fractures, 68.7%).
Orthopedic surgical specialties demonstrated differences across procedural and postprocedural appropriateness. The metric of appropriateness identifies targets for quality improvement and is meaningful for clinicians. Targeted quality improvement projects for orthopedic specialties need to be developed to support optimization of antimicrobial use.
Stop the Bleed (STB) is a national initiative that provides lifesaving hemorrhagic control education. In 2019, pharmacists were added as health-care personnel eligible to become STB instructors. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacist-led STB trainings for school employees in South Texas.
Pharmacist-led STB trainings were provided to teachers and staff in Laredo, Texas. The 60-min trainings included a presentation followed by hands-on practice of tourniquet application, wound-packing, and direct pressure application. Training efficacy was assessed through anonymous pre- and postevent surveys, which evaluated changes in knowledge, comfort level, and willingness to assist in hemorrhage control interventions. Student volunteers (predominantly pharmacy and medical students) assisted in leading the hands-on portion, providing a unique interprofessional learning opportunity.
Participants with previous training (N = 98) were excluded, resulting in a final cohort of 437 (response rate 87.4%). Compared with baseline, comfort level using tourniquets (mean, 3.17/5 vs 4.20/5; P < 0.0001), opinion regarding tourniquet safety (2.59/3 vs 2.94/3; P < 0.0001), and knowledge regarding tourniquets (70.86/100 vs 75.84/100; P < 0.0001) and proper tourniquet placement (2.40/4 vs 3.15/4; P < 0.0001) significantly improved.
Pharmacist-led STB trainings are efficacious in increasing school worker knowledge and willingness to respond in an emergency hemorrhagic situation.
This is a cross-sectional study aiming to understand the early characteristics and background of bone health impairment in clinically well children with Fontan circulation.
We enrolled 10 clinically well children with Fontan palliation (operated >5 years before study entrance, Tanner stage ≤3, age 12.1 ± 1.77 years, 7 males) and 11 healthy controls (age 12.0 ± 1.45 years, 9 males) at two children’s hospitals. All patients underwent peripheral quantitative CT. For the Fontan group, we obtained clinical characteristics, NYHA class, cardiac index by MRI, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and biochemical studies. Linear regression was used to compare radius and tibia peripheral quantitative CT measures between Fontan patients and controls.
All Fontan patients were clinically well (NYHA class 1 or 2, cardiac index 4.85 ± 1.51 L/min/m2) and without significant comorbidities. Adjusted trabecular bone mineral density, cortical thickness, and bone strength index at the radius were significantly decreased in Fontan patients compared to controls with mean differences −30.13 mg/cm3 (p = 0.041), −0.31 mm (p = 0.043), and −6.65 mg2/mm4 (p = 0.036), respectively. No differences were found for tibial measures. In Fontan patients, the mean height-adjusted lumbar bone mineral density and total body less head z scores were −0.46 ± 1.1 and −0.63 ± 1.1, respectively, which are below the average, but within normal range for age and sex.
In a clinically well Fontan cohort, we found significant bone deficits by peripheral quantitative CT in the radius but not the tibia, suggesting non-weight-bearing bones may be more vulnerable to the unique haemodynamics of the Fontan circulation.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in 8 of 1000 live-born children, making them common birth defects in the adolescent population. CHDs may have single gene, chromosomal, or multifactorial causes. Despite evidence that patients with CHD want information on heritability and genetics, no studies have investigated the interest or knowledge base in the adolescent population. This information is necessary as patients in adolescence take greater ownership of their health care and discuss reproductive risks with their physicians. The objectives of this survey-based study were to determine adolescents’ recall of their own heart condition, to assess patient and parent perception of the genetic contribution to the adolescent’s CHD, and to obtain information about the preferred method(s) for education. The results show that adolescent patients had good recall of their type of CHD. Less than half of adolescents and parents believed their CHD had a genetic basis or was heritable; however, adolescents with a positive family history of CHD were more likely to believe that their condition was genetic (p = 0.0005). The majority of patients were interested in receiving additional genetics education and preferred education in-person and in consultation with both parents and a physician. The adolescents who felt most competent to have discussions with their doctors regarding potential causes of their heart defect previously had a school science course which covered topics in genetics. These results provide insight into adolescents’ perceptions and understanding about their CHD and genetic risk and may inform the creation and provision of additional genetic education.
Approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations that are refractory to antipsychotic medications. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) that we hypothesized would improve auditory hallucination symptoms by enhancing synchronization between the frontal and temporo-parietal areas of the left hemisphere.
22 participants were randomized to one of three arms and received twice daily, 20 min sessions of sham, 10 Hz 2 mA peak-to-peak tACS, or 2 mA tDCS over the course of 5 consecutive days. Symptom improvement was assessed using the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS) as the primary outcome measure. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) were secondary outcomes.
Primary and secondary behavioral outcomes were not significantly different between the three arms. However, effect size analyses show that tACS had the greatest effect based on the auditory hallucinations scale for the week of stimulation (1.31 for tACS; 1.06 and 0.17, for sham and tDCS, respectively). Effect size analysis for the secondary outcomes revealed heterogeneous results across measures and stimulation conditions.
To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial of tACS for the treatment of symptoms of a psychiatric condition. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better understand the effect of tACS on auditory hallucinations.
Alcohol and cannabis remain the substances most widely used by adolescents. Better understanding of the dynamic relationship between trajectories of substance use in relation to neuropsychological functioning is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the different impacts of within- and between-person changes in alcohol and cannabis use on neuropsychological functioning over multiple time points.
Hierarchical linear modeling examined the effects of alcohol and cannabis use on neuropsychological functioning over the course of 14 years in a sample of 175 adolescents (aged 12–15 years at baseline).
Time-specific fluctuations in alcohol use (within-person effect) predicted worse performance across time on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Block Design subtest (B = −.05, SE = .02, p = .01). Greater mean levels of percent days of cannabis use across time (between-person effect) were associated with an increased contrast score between Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Inhibition and Color Naming conditions (B = .52, SE = .14, p < .0001) and poorer performance over time on Block Design (B = −.08, SE = .04, p = .03). Neither alcohol and/nor cannabis use over time was associated with performance in the verbal memory and processing speed domains.
Greater cumulative cannabis use over adolescence may be linked to poorer inhibitory control and visuospatial functioning performance, whereas more proximal increases in alcohol consumption during adolescence may drive alcohol-related performance decrements in visuospatial functioning. Results from this prospective study add to the growing body of literature on the impact of alcohol and cannabis use on cognition from adolescent to young adulthood.
Maternal input influences language development in children with Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD). Telegraphic input, or simplified input violating English grammatical rules, is controversial in speech–language pathology, yet no research to date has investigated whether mothers of children with DS use telegraphic input. This study investigated the quality of linguistic input to children with DS compared to age-matched children with TD, and the relationship between maternal input and child language abilities. Mothers of children with DS simplified their input in multiple ways, by using a lower lexical diversity, shorter utterances, and more telegraphic input compared to mothers of children with TD. Telegraphic input was not significantly correlated with other aspects of maternal input or child language abilities. Since children with DS demonstrate specific deficits in grammatical compared to lexical abilities, future work should investigate the long-term influence of maternal telegraphic input on language development in children with DS.