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Three techniques based on transmission electron microscope (TEM) have been successfully applied to measure strain/stress in the channel area of PMOS semiconductor devices with embedded SiGe in the source/drain areas: convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), nano beam diffraction (NBD) and dark-filed holography (DFH). Consistent channel strain measurements from the three techniques on the same TEM sample (eSiGe PMOS with 17%Ge) were obtained. Reliable strain/stress measurement results in the channel area have been achieved with very good agreement with computer-aided design (TCAD) calculations.
Convergent electron beam diffraction (CBED) has been successfully applied to measure strain/stress in the channel area in PMOS semiconductor device with embedded SiGe (eSiGe) for 65nm technology. Reliable results of strain/stress measurements in the channel area have been achieved by good fitting of experimental CBED patterns with theoretical calculations. Stress measurements from CBED are in good agreement with simulations. A compressive stress as high as 823.9 MPa was measured in the <110> direction in the channel area of a PMOS device with eSiGe with 15% Ge and a thickness of 80nm. Stress measurements from CBED also confirm that the depth of the eSiGe and defects such as dislocation loops within the eSiGe relax strain/stress within the film and reduce strain/stress in the channel area.
The effect of nitrogen implants on boron transient enhanced diffusion was studied for nitrogen-only, boron-only, and boron plus nitrogen implants. A boron buried layer was used as a detector for interstitial supersaturation in the samples. Boron dose ranged from 1×1014 to 1×1015 cm−2 and N2+ dose from 5×1013 and 5×1014 cm−2. The energies were chosen such that the location of the nitrogen and boron peaks matched. After the implants, RTA and low temperature furnace anneals were carried out. The diffusivity enhancements were extracted from the buried layer profiles by simulation. Nitrogen-only implants were found to cause significant enhanced diffusion on the buried boron layer. For lower doses, the enhancement of the nitrogen implant is about half as that of boron whereas the enhancements are equal at higher doses. Nitrogen coimplant with boron increases the transient enhanced diffusion of boron at low boron doses, which implies that nitrogen does not act as a strong sink for excess interstitials unlike carbon. At high boron doses, nitrogen co-implant does not significantly change boron diffusion. Sheet resistance measurements indicate that low nitrogen doses do not affect the activation of boron whereas high nitrogen doses either reduce the activation of boron or the mobility of the holes.
method for characterizing the mechanical stress induced in silicon technology is described. Analysis by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPM) coupled with finite-element (FE) mechanical strain simulations is performed. The SKPM technique detects variations in the semiconductor work function due to strain influences on the band gap. This technique is then used to analyze the strain induced by shallow trench isolation processes for electrical isolation. The SKPM measurements agree with the FE simulations qualitatively.
Nitrogen implantation can be used to control gate oxide thicknesses [1,2]. This study aims at studying the fundamental behavior of nitrogen diffusion in silicon. Nitrogen at sub-amorphizing doses has been implanted as N2+ at 40 keV and 200 keV into Czochralski silicon wafers. Furnace anneals have been performed at a range of temperatures from 650°C through 1050°C. The resulting annealed profiles show anomalous diffusion behavior. For the 40 keV implants, nitrogen diffuses very rapidly and segregates at the silicon/ silicon-oxide interface. Modeling of this behavior is based on the theory that the diffusion is limited by the time to create a mobile nitrogen interstitial.
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