To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The transition from puddled-transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) (PTR) to direct-seeded rice (DSR) is gaining popularity in central China. In contrast, the PTR system is the most common practice in southwest China. Weeds are a major problem in the paddy fields of the DSR systems, and herbicides are widely used for weed control. However, the increased frequency and rate of herbicide use leads to the rapid evolution of resistance. Smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) is a troublesome weed species in rice fields of China and is usually controlled by the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide bensulfuron-methyl. Here, we collected 32 C. difformis populations from DSR systems (Hunan Province) and PTR systems (Guangxi Province) and investigated their resistance to bensulfuron-methyl. Results revealed 80% (8 out of 10) populations from Hunan Province and 14% (3 out of 22) populations from Guangxi Province had evolved resistance to bensulfuron-methyl. Five populations from Hunan Province (HN-2, HN-3, HN-5, HN-9, HN-10) possessing the Trp-574-Leu mutation had high-level resistance (ranging from 169- to >1,309-fold) based on GR50 ratios. The resistant populations from Guangxi Province had a lower level of resistance to bensulfuron-methyl due to a Pro-197-Ser mutation. The Asp-376-Glu mutation was only identified in the HN-4 population. In addition, the GX-3 population from the PTR systems was resistant to bensulfuron-methyl without ALS gene mutations, indicating non–target site resistance (NTSR). Although some resistant populations of both regions exhibited cross-resistance to multiple ALS-inhibiting herbicides, including pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bispyribac-sodium, penoxsulam, and imazapic, sensitivity was also detected to the auxin herbicide MCPA and the photosystem II–inhibiting herbicides bentazone and propanil. These results indicate that cultivation practices affect resistance evolution in C. difformis. DSR systems exert high selection pressure by selecting the Trp-574-Leu mutation, resulting in high-level resistance. In contrast, a mutation at Pro-197 plus NTSR likely plays a significant role in ALS resistance in the PTR systems.
Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, a phenoxy herbicide of the aryloxy–phenoxy–propionic acid group, had a strong control effect when applied POST to weedy rice in this study, with the effective concentrations of 294 μM and 218 μM of herbicide causing 50% inhibition (IC50) in plant height and fresh weight values, respectively. However, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl caused phytotoxicity in cultivated rice. Isoxadifen-ethyl, a widely used herbicide safener in rice, can decrease the phytotoxicity caused by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Owing to the extremely similar morphological features and physiological properties of weedy and cultivated rice, it is not practical to spray isoxadifen-ethyl directly on cultivated rice plants to safen them. Applying the safener directly to cultivated rice seeds may be a practical alternative method. To improve the biological activity of isoxadifen-ethyl seed treatments, novel compounds were designed by splicing other groups, including amines, amino acids, and 2- methoxy-5-nitrophenol sodium salt, to the parental structure of isoxadifen-ethyl. Through hydrolysis, acyl chlorination, acyl amination, and esterification, a series of isoxadifen-ethyl derivatives were synthesized and their structures were determined by mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activities of five of the isoxadifen-ethyl derivatives, which possessed recovery effects similar to isoxadifen-ethyl, were able to relieve herbicide phytotoxicity. In pot experiments, isoxadifen-ethyl showed almost no activity as a seed treatment, while three derivative compounds, when used independently as seed treatments, were able to prevent the damage caused by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. The results will help to develop a new control method for weedy rice, thereby decreasing production costs and increasing farmers’ incomes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.