To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
At its most basic level, personality refers to relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving manifested by individuals. Personality is internal; it refers to characteristics that reside within the individual. Personality has broad effects and accounts for stable behavior patterns across time and situations. Personality is important to a variety of negative and positive outcomes including academic achievement (Poropat, 2009), work performance (Barrick & Mount, 1991) and satisfaction (Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002), leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt, 2002), physical (Bogg & Roberts, 2004) and psychological health (Malouff, Thorsteinsson & Schutte, 2005; Samuel & Widiger, 2008), subjective wellbeing (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998) and relationship satisfaction (Malouff, Thorsteinsson, Schutte, Bhullar & Rooke, 2010).
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Religions that do not experience organizational, theological, and ritual renewal tend to decline, losing market share to competing religious groups that are more creative and adaptable to contemporary culture and political realities. Currently, Christianity is the world's largest religion, with approximately 2.2 billon adherents, followed by Islam with 1.6 billion, Hinduism with 1 billion, and Buddhism with fewer than a 0.5 billion. Christianity, however, would not be in this place of dominance without renewal movements throughout its history. Most recently, an example of a renewal movement is Pentecostalism, which was ignited by the Azusa Street revival in 1906 and rapidly began exporting missionaries around the world, followed by what became known as the charismatic renewal among Catholics and some mainline Protestants beginning in the 1960s.
Defining Pentecostalism is complex because of its many permutations. Theologically, Pentecostals trace their history back to the early Christian church when, fifty days after Jesus's reported resurrection, the Holy Spirit descended on his disciples and followers, enabling them to “speak in tongues” and empowering them to heal those who were sick, as well as giving them the gift of prophecy and appropriate other “gifts” of the Spirit. In the intervening two thousand years, there are various instances when ecstatic religious experiences were manifested, but the contemporary origins of Pentecostalism are typically traced to the recurrence of speaking in tongues in 1901, when students at Bethel Bible School in Topeka, Kansas, were moved by the Spirit under the tutelage of Charles F. Parham. A few years later, Parham took his message regarding Spirit baptism to Houston, Texas, where William J. Seymour, a black Holiness preacher, became convinced that the Holy Spirit was still in the business of working supernatural miracles. Seymour then began preaching the same message to a small gathering of people in 1906 in Los Angeles, igniting what became known as the Azusa Street revival, attended by thousands of people and named after the street where an interracial gathering began to replicate the acts of the first-century apostles: speaking in tongues, healing the infirm, and prophesying.
According to Allan Anderson, a simultaneous expression of the gifts of the Spirit was manifest in India (1905–1907) in the Mukti (“Salvation”) revival, led by a woman, Pandita Ramabai.
Collaboration is used by the US National Security Council as a means to integrate inter-federal government agencies during planning and execution of common goals towards unified, national security. The concept of collaboration has benefits in the healthcare system by building trust, sharing resources, and reducing costs. The current terrorist threats have made collaborative medical training between military and civilian agencies crucial.
This review summarizes the long and rich history of collaboration between civilians and the military in various countries and provides support for the continuation and improvement of collaborative efforts. Through collaboration, advances in the treatment of injuries have been realized, deaths have been reduced, and significant strides in the betterment of the Emergency Medical System have been achieved. This review promotes collaborative medical training between military and civilian medical professionals and provides recommendations for the future based on medical collaboration.
The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case–control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.
There is surprisingly little published information about giant panda biology, especially in the life sciences. This poor quantity (and quality) of data has been due primarily to too few individual animals available for study and a traditional hands-off policy towards hands-on research in such a rare and high-profile species. However, recent changes (see Chapter 2) have created important, new opportunities for giant panda investigations. People responsible for ensuring that the species survives now realise that giant pandas living in zoos and breeding centres are a valuable research resource (see Chapter 1). It also has been recognised that this population must be intensively managed if it is truly to support giant pandas that are surviving precariously in nature. The intended result will be an ever-increasing amount of new, scholarly information and sufficient panda numbers to continue educating the public, helping to raise conservation funding, serving as a hedge against extinction, and even as a source of animals for potential reintroductions. However, these laudable goals can only be achieved by first understanding and then rigorously managing the captive population so that it becomes demographically and genetically stable. This, in fact, has become the mantra of Chinese managers of the ex situ population: ‘to develop a self-sustaining, captive population of giant pandas that will assist supporting a long-term, viable population in the wild’ (see Chapter 2).
At the Savannah River Site (SRS) we are currently finalizing the design for a multi-system vitrification process that will be installed in the F-Canyon Multi-Purpose Process Facility (MPPF), an existing highly shielded, remotely operated facility. Authorization to proceed beyond the preliminary design based on the recommendation of a Formal Design Review Board was requested in May of 1999.
The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Process Development Group has been conducting research and developing a process to identify equipment design bases and process operating parameters since 1996. The goal of the project is to stabilize a tank of ∼11,000 liters of nitric acid solution containing valuable isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm). Vitrification has been selected as the most attractive alternative for stabilization and provides the opportunity for recovery and eventual reuse of the actinides. The final glass form will be placed in interim storage awaiting a disposition by the Department of Energy. This paper presents a brief history of the stabilization program and an overview of the entire Am/Cm stabilization process. This paper also provides details of a specific processing issue related to drain tube pluggage (devitrification) that was encountered during the development of the baseline batch vitrification process, and the remedy employed to reduce the potential for further drain tube pluggage.
Substantial constituency influence over the lower house of Congress is commonly thought to be both a normative principle and a factual truth of American government. From their draft constitution we may assume the Founding Fathers expected it, and many political scientists feel, regretfully, that the Framers' wish has come all too true. Nevertheless, much of the evidence of constituency control rests on inference. The fact that our House of Representatives, especially by comparison with the House of Commons, has irregular party voting does not of itself indicate that Congressmen deviate from party in response to local pressure. And even more, the fact that many Congressmen feel pressure from home does not of itself establish that the local constituency is performing any of the acts that a reasonable definition of control would imply.
Control by the local constituency is at one pole of both the great normative controversies about representation that have arisen in modern times. It is generally recognized that constituency control is opposite to the conception of representation associated with Edmund Burke. Burke wanted the representative to serve the constituency's interest but not its will, and the extent to which the representative should be compelled by electoral sanctions to follow the “mandate” of his constituents has been at the heart of the ensuing controversy as it has continued for a century and a half.