To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Altels hanging glacier in Switzerland broke off on 11 September 1895. The ice volume of this catastrophic rupture was estimated as 4 × 106 m3, the largest icefall event ever observed in the Alps. However, the causes of this collapse are not entirely clear. Based on previous studies, we reanalyzed this break-off event, with the help of a new numerical model, initially developed by Faillettaz and others (2010) for gravity-driven instabilities. The simulations indicate that a break-off event is only possible when the basal friction at the bedrock is reduced in a restricted area, possibly induced by the storage of infiltrated water within the glacier. Further, our simulations reveal a two-step behavior: (1) a first quiescent phase, without visible changes, with a duration depending on the rate of change in basal friction; (2) an active phase with a rapid increase of basal motion over a few days. The general lesson obtained from the comparison between the simulations and available observations is that detectable precursors (crevasse formation and velocity increase) of the destabilization process of a hanging glacier, resulting from a progressive warming of the ice/bed interface towards a temperate regime, will appear only a few days prior to the break-off.
A hanging glacier at the east face of Weisshorn, Switzerland, broke off in 2005. We were able to monitor and measure surface motion and icequake activity for 25 days up to 3 days prior to the break-off. The analysis of seismic waves generated by the glacier during the rupture maturation process revealed four types of precursory signals of the imminent catastrophic rupture: (1) an increase in seismic activity within the glacier; (2) a change in the size–frequency distribution of icequake energy; (3) a modification in the structure of the waiting-time distributions between two successive icequakes; and (4) a correlation between the seismic activity and the log-periodic oscillations of the surface velocities superimposed on the global acceleration of the glacier during the rupture maturation. Analysis of the seismic activity led us to identify two regimes: a stable phase with diffuse damage and an unstable and dangerous phase characterized by a hierarchical cascade of rupture instabilities where large icequakes are triggered.
Drawing on Clausewitz's classical theory, we argue that the emergence of mass nationalism following the French Revolution profoundly altered the nature of the units constituting the interstate system, thereby transforming the conduct of interstate warfare. To validate these assertions—and thus to test Clausewitz—we rely on quantitative evidence at the macro level, with a particular focus on the global distribution of interstate war sizes, measured in terms of battle deaths, over the past five centuries. Drawing on extreme value theory, we demonstrate that temporal discontinuities in the shapes of the tails of such distributions can be used to draw inferences about the nature of the mechanisms underlying the bloodiest events in world history. This approach allows us to show that the interstate system experienced a fundamental shift in the mechanisms underlying the production of war sizes: a shift that can be dated to the years 1770–1810, and that resulted in a systematic increase in war severity. These same tools also allow us to rule out a number of alternative explanations for this shift (including changes in population sizes and changes in weapons technology), while providing evidence for a specific account of war severity rooted in the mobilizational capacities of states.
We propose a dynamical system theory of triaxial-test deformationS and localization bifurcation in brittle media. We apply it to predict that localization may occur in a packing looser than “critical” and that the general localization shape is a spiral staircase in axisymmetric 3-D cells. These two facts have recently been confirmed experimentally. This theory provides a framework for understanding the development of complex deformation patterns from the mechanics of localization and rupture.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.