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Mars exploration motivates the search for extraterrestrial life, the development of space technologies, and the design of human missions and habitations. Here, we seek new insights and pose unresolved questions relating to the natural history of Mars, habitability, robotic and human exploration, planetary protection, and the impacts on human society. Key observations and findings include:
– high escape rates of early Mars' atmosphere, including loss of water, impact present-day habitability;
– putative fossils on Mars will likely be ambiguous biomarkers for life;
– microbial contamination resulting from human habitation is unavoidable; and
– based on Mars' current planetary protection category, robotic payload(s) should characterize the local martian environment for any life-forms prior to human habitation.
Some of the outstanding questions are:
– which interpretation of the hemispheric dichotomy of the planet is correct;
– to what degree did deep-penetrating faults transport subsurface liquids to Mars' surface;
– in what abundance are carbonates formed by atmospheric processes;
– what properties of martian meteorites could be used to constrain their source locations;
– the origin(s) of organic macromolecules;
– was/is Mars inhabited;
– how can missions designed to uncover microbial activity in the subsurface eliminate potential false positives caused by microbial contaminants from Earth;
– how can we ensure that humans and microbes form a stable and benign biosphere; and
– should humans relate to putative extraterrestrial life from a biocentric viewpoint (preservation of all biology), or anthropocentric viewpoint of expanding habitation of space?
Studies of Mars' evolution can shed light on the habitability of extrasolar planets. In addition, Mars exploration can drive future policy developments and confirm (or put into question) the feasibility and/or extent of human habitability of space.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested Triacylglyceride that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesise that this ‘pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the ‘PDF system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice that were administered this ‘PDF system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the ‘PDF system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the ‘PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced ROS in the lung and also increases lung maturation in non-NEC mice.
Long-term ‘not in education, employment or training’ (NEET) status is an important indicator of youth marginalisation.
To carry out a comprehensive overview of the associations between different psychiatric illnesses and long-term NEET status.
We used the register-based 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort study, which includes all live births in Finland during that year. The analyses comprised 55 273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration. We predicted that psychiatric disorders, diagnosed by specialist services between 1998 and 2007 when the cohort were 10–20 years of age, would be associated with subsequent long-term NEET (defined as NEET for at least 5 years between 2008 and 2015, when they were 20–28 years of age).
In total, 1438 individuals (2.6%) were long-term NEET during follow-up and the associations between long-term NEET and the 11 diagnostic categories we studied were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multivariate models we included sociodemographic characteristics and upper secondary education as covariates, and the highest effect sizes, measured by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were found for psychosis (OR = 12.0, 95% CI 9.5–15.2) and autism spectrum disorder (OR = 17.3, 95% CI 11.5–26.0). If individuals had not successfully completed this education, 70.6% of those with autism spectrum disorder and 48.4% of those with psychosis were later long-term NEET.
Adolescents who receive treatment for psychiatric disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder or psychosis, need support to access education and employment. This could help to prevent marginalisation in early adulthood.
Wireless connectivity has been realized for multiple environments and different frequency bands. However, little research exists about mmWave communication in industrial environments. This paper presents the 60 GHz double-directional radio channel for mmWave communication in a ship hull for Line-of-Sight (LOS) and non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) conditions. We performed channel measurements using the Terragraph channel sounder at different locations in the ship hull and fitted LOS path loss to a one-slope path loss model. Path loss and root-mean-square delay spread of the LOS path is compared to the reflected path with lowest path loss. NLOS communication via this first-order reflected path is modeled by calculating the path distance and determining the reflection loss. The reflection losses have a considerable contribution to the signal attenuation of the reflected path. The channel models are implemented in an indoor coverage prediction tool, which was extended with a ray launching algorithm and validated by comparison with an analytical electromagnetic solver. The results show that the mmWave radio channel allows high-throughput communication within a ship hull compartment, even when no LOS path between the transmitter and receiver is present.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
The determinants of quality of life (QoL) in schizophrenia are largely debated, mainly due to methodological discrepancies and divergence about the concepts concerned. As most studies have investigated bi- or tri-variate models, a multivariate model accounting for simultaneous potential mediations is necessary to have a comprehensive view of the determinants of QOL. We sought to estimate the associations between cognitive reserve, cognition, functioning, insight, depression, schizophrenic symptoms, and QoL in schizophrenia and their potential mediation relationships.
We used structural equation modeling with mediation analyses to test a model based on existing literature in a sample of 776 patients with schizophrenia from the FondaMental Foundation FACE-SZ cohort.
Our model showed a good fit to the data. We found better functioning to be positively associated with a better QoL, whereas better cognition, better insight, higher levels of depression, and schizophrenic symptoms were associated with a lower QoL in our sample. Cognitive reserve is not directly linked to QoL, but indirectly in a negative manner via cognition. We confirm the negative relationship between cognition and subjective QoL which was previously evidenced by other studies; moreover, this relationship seems to be robust as it survived in our multivariate model. It was not explained by insight as some suggested, thus the mechanism at stake remains to be explained.
The pathways to subjective QoL in schizophrenia are complex and the determinants largely influence each other. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these cross-sectional findings.
In this work, a new method to determine and correct the linear drift for any crystalline orientation in a single-column-resolved high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) image, which is based on angle measurements in the Fourier space, is presented. This proposal supposes a generalization and the improvement of a previous work that needs the presence of two symmetrical planes in the crystalline orientation to be applicable. Now, a mathematical derivation of the drift effect on two families of asymmetric planes in the reciprocal space is inferred. However, though it was not possible to find an analytical solution for all conditions, a simple formula was derived to calculate the drift effect that is exact for three specific rotation angles. Taking this into account, an iterative algorithm based on successive rotation/drift correction steps is devised to remove drift distortions in HR-STEM images. The procedure has been evaluated using a simulated micrograph of a monoclinic material in an orientation where all the reciprocal lattice vectors are different. The algorithm only needs four iterations to resolve a 15° drift angle in the image.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
We present a calibration component for the Murchison Widefield Array All-Sky Virtual Observatory (MWA ASVO) utilising a newly developed PostgreSQL database of calibration solutions. Since its inauguration in 2013, the MWA has recorded over 34 petabytes of data archived at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre. According to the MWA Data Access policy, data become publicly available 18 months after collection. Therefore, most of the archival data are now available to the public. Access to public data was provided in 2017 via the MWA ASVO interface, which allowed researchers worldwide to download MWA uncalibrated data in standard radio astronomy data formats (CASA measurement sets or UV FITS files). The addition of the MWA ASVO calibration feature opens a new, powerful avenue for researchers without a detailed knowledge of the MWA telescope and data processing to download calibrated visibility data and create images using standard radio astronomy software packages. In order to populate the database with calibration solutions from the last 6 yr we developed fully automated pipelines. A near-real-time pipeline has been used to process new calibration observations as soon as they are collected and upload calibration solutions to the database, which enables monitoring of the interferometric performance of the telescope. Based on this database, we present an analysis of the stability of the MWA calibration solutions over long time intervals.
Antidepressant prescribing patterns and factors influencing the choice of antidepressant for the treatment of depression were examined in the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study, a prospective, observational study in 12 European countries of 3468 adults about to start antidepressant medication for their first episode of depression or a new episode of recurrent depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most commonly prescribed antidepressant (63.3% patients), followed by serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, 13.6%), but there was considerable variation across countries. Notably, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were prescribed for 26.5% patients in Germany. The choice of the antidepressant prescribed was strongly influenced by the previous use of antidepressants, which was significantly associated with the prescription of a SSRI (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.54, 0.76), a SNRI (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.18, 1.88) or a combination of antidepressants (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.96, 3.96). Physician factors (age, gender, speciality) and patient factors (severity of depression, age, education, smoking, number of current physical conditions and functional syndromes) were associated with initial antidepressant choice in some models. In conclusion, the prescribing of antidepressants varies by country, and the type of antidepressant chosen is influenced by physician- as well as patient-related factors.
Factors influencing outcomes of depression in clinical practice, especially health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are poorly understood. The Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study is a European prospective, observational study designed to estimate the HRQoL of adults with a clinically diagnosed depressive episode at baseline, and 3 and 6 months after commencing antidepressant medication. We report here the study design and baseline patient characteristics.
HRQoL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). Patient ratings on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were also obtained. Results (n = 3468) showed that SF-36 mental component summary (mean 22.2) was more than two SDs below general population norms (mean 50.0) and one SD below clinical depression norms (mean 34.8); the physical component summary (mean 46.1) was similar to general population (mean 50.0) and clinical depression norms (mean 45.0). Mean EQ-5D scores were also lower than general population norms. Mean HADS-Depression and -Anxiety subscores were 12.3 and 13.0, respectively. Fifty-six percent of patients reported an overall pain VAS score of at least 30 mm and 70% of these patients had no physical explanation for their pain.
Further investigation into factors associated with HRQoL in depression after treatment initiation is warranted.
The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals.
A low-cost infrared microscope is evaluated in both transmission and attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) sampling modes. Transmission spectra of 60 to 250 micrometer samples exhibited an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Signal-to-noise in transmission mode also correlated well with theoretical predictions. The quantitative capability of the microscope was demonstrated by measuring the colorant concentration of red, yellow, and blue polypropylene fibers. These latter measurements were conducted using the ATR sampling mode of the microscope. Colorant concentrations could be measured to 1% by weight, and calibration curves with excellent R2 values were obtained over the dye concentration range of 1 to 10% by weight colorant.
Much is known about processions within the Roman liturgy, but the processions of the Old Hispanic rite practiced in most of Christian Iberia until ca. 1080 have not been studied. Explicit evidence about Old Hispanic processional characteristics and liturgical contexts is preserved in manuscript rubrics. Processions happened around or during Mass (for example, on Palm Sunday), at the end of Vespers or Matutinum (for example, the consecration of a basilica), or outside the usual daily liturgy (for example, votive ordos). We have collated all of the extant Old Hispanic rubrics pertaining to liturgical movement. Some of these unquestionably refer to processions, while others describe ceremonies that might better be described more informally as “liturgy in motion.” We focus primarily on the processional rubrics, while also engaging with other liturgical movement. We identify the chant genres associated with processions and outline the processional practices attested in the rubrics.
This study explores magnetization exhibited by nanoscale platinum-based structures embedded in pure silica plates. A superposition of laser pulses in the samples produced periodic linear arrangements of micro-sized structures. The samples were integrated by PtO2 microstructures (PtOΣs) with dispersed Pt oxide nanoparticles in their surroundings. The characterization of the materials was performed by high transmission electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, topographical and magnetic effects on the sample surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy, respectively. The magnetic measurements indicated an enhancement in the gradient phase shift and in the gradient force related to the magnetic PtOΣs. The possibility of tuning the magnetic characteristics of the samples through contact with a Nd2Fe14B magnet was demonstrated. This process corresponds to an innovative method for obtaining magnetic PtOΣs induced by laser pulses. Moreover, an increase in the compactness of the silica with platinum-based structures was confirmed by an evaluation of the effective elastic modulus with reference to pure silica. The multimodal magnetic structures studied in this work seem to be candidates for developing high-density magnetic storage media.
A previous study detected mixing of two deeply split mtDNA clades (Clade I and Clade II) for Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the medusozoan Pelagia noctiluca. The north hemisphere glaciations and the Messinian salinity crisis have been proposed as the two main biogeographic events related to the isolation between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We tested if the splitting time between Clade I and Clade II of P. noctiluca was associated with one of these geological events. Our study was based on DNA sequence data of mitochondrial (COI and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 5.8S ribosomal RNA) genes from populations of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The rise of the Isthmus of Panama was used to calibrate substitution rates for COI. This calibration was based on the detection of a shallow but significant genetic structure between P. noctiluca populations from the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. Considering our calibration for COI, we refute a possible origin of Clades I and II during the Messinian salinity crisis. Our estimates suggest the origin for a putative common ancestor of Clades I and II around 2.57 Ma (with 95% 2.91–2.22 HPD), roughly corresponding to the Gelasian stage of the early Pleistocene. These alterations include changes in the sea level and oceanic currents at the Strait of Gibraltar and other regions of the Mediterranean basin, and could explain the origin of the two P. noctiluca clades.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.