To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, vitamin B12 deficiency was seen in 65% of pregnant women, folate deficiency was rare. Maternal total homocysteine concentrations were inversely associated with offspring birthweight, and low vitamin B12 and high folate concentrations predicted higher offspring adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings guided a nested pre-conceptional randomised controlled trial ‘Pune Rural Intervention in Young Adolescents’. The interventions included: (1) vitamin B12+multi-micronutrients as per the United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Antenatal Preparation, and proteins (B12+MMN), (2) vitamin B12 (B12 alone), and (3) placebo. Intervention improved maternal pre-conceptional and in-pregnancy micronutrient nutrition. Gene expression analysis in cord blood mononuclear cells in 88 pregnancies revealed 75 differentially expressed genes between the B12+MMN and placebo groups. The enriched biological processes included G2/M phase transition, chromosome segregation, and nuclear division. Enriched pathways included, mitotic spindle checkpoint and DNA damage response while enriched human phenotypes were sloping forehead and decreased head circumference. Fructose-bisphosphatase 2 (FBP2) and Cell Division Cycle Associated 2 (CDCA2) genes were under-expressed in the B12 alone group. The latter, involved in chromosome segregation was under-expressed in both intervention groups. Based on the role of B-complex vitamins in the synthesis of nucleotides and S-adenosyl methionine, and the roles of vitamins A and D on gene expression, we propose that the multi-micronutrient intervention epigenetically affected cell cycle dynamics. Neonates in the B12+MMN group had the highest ponderal index. Follow-up studies will reveal if the intervention and the altered biological processes influence offspring diabesity.
Maternal size, weight gain in pregnancy, fetal gender, environment and gestational age are known determinants of birth weight. It is not clear which component of maternal weight or gained weight during pregnancy influences birth weight. We evaluated the association of maternal total body water measured by the deuterium dilution technique (TBW-D2O) at 17 and 34 weeks of gestation with birth weight. A secondary aim was to examine the utility of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) to determine total body water (TBW-BIS) in pregnancy. At 17 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, ninety-nine women (fifty-one rural and forty-eight urban) from Pune, India had measurements of body weight, TBW-D2O, TBW-BIS and offspring birth weight. At 17 weeks of gestation, average weights for rural and urban women were 45⋅5 ± 4⋅8 (sd) and 50⋅7 ± 7⋅8 kg (P < 0⋅0001), respectively. Maternal weight gains over the subsequent 17 weeks for rural and urban women were 6⋅0 ± 2⋅2 and 7⋅5 ± 2⋅8 kg (P = 0⋅003) and water gains were 4⋅0 ± 2⋅4 and 4⋅8 ± 2⋅8 kg (P = 0⋅092), respectively. In both rural and urban women, birth weight was positively, and independently, associated with gestation and parity. Only for rural women, between 17 and 34 weeks, was an increase in dry mass (weight minus TBW-D2O) or a decrease in TBW-D2O as a percentage of total weight associated with a higher birth weight. At both 17 and 34 weeks, TBW-BIS increasingly underestimated TBW-D2O as the water space increased. Differences in body composition during pregnancy between rural and urban environments and possible impacts of nutrition transition on maternal body composition and fetal growth were demonstrated.
With type 2 diabetes presenting at younger ages, there is a growing need to identify biomarkers of future glucose intolerance. A high (20%) prevalence of glucose intolerance at 18 years was seen in women from the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS) birth cohort. We investigated the potential of circulating microRNAs in risk stratification for future pre-diabetes in these women. Here, we provide preliminary longitudinal analyses of circulating microRNAs in normal glucose tolerant (NGT@18y, N = 10) and glucose intolerant (N = 8) women (ADA criteria) at 6, 12 and 17 years of their age using discovery analysis (OpenArray™ platform). Machine-learning workflows involving Lasso with bootstrapping/leave-one-out cross-validation identified microRNAs associated with glucose intolerance at 18 years of age. Several microRNAs, including miR-212-3p, miR-30e-3p and miR-638, stratified glucose-intolerant women from NGT at childhood. Our results suggest that circulating microRNAs, longitudinally assessed over 17 years of life, are dynamic biomarkers associated with and predictive of pre-diabetes at 18 years of age. Validation of these findings in males and remaining participants from the PMNS birth cohort will provide a unique opportunity to study novel epigenetic mechanisms in the life-course progression of glucose intolerance and enhance current clinical risk prediction of pre-diabetes and progression to type 2 diabetes.
Our objective was to investigate associations of body size (birth weight and body mass index (BMI)) and growth in height, body fat (adiposity) and lean mass during childhood and adolescence, with risk markers for diabetes in young South Asian adults. We studied 357 men and women aged 21 years from the Pune Children’s Study birth cohort. Exposures were 1) birth weight, 21-year BMI, both of these mutually adjusted, and their interaction, and 2) uncorrelated conditional measures of growth in height and proxies for gain in adiposity and lean mass from birth to 8 years (childhood) and 8 to 21 years (adolescence) constructed from birth weight, and weight, height, and skinfolds at 8 and 21 years. Outcomes were plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test and derived indices of insulin resistance and secretion. Higher 21-year BMI was associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, and lower disposition index. After adjusting for 21-year BMI, higher birth weight was associated with lower 120-min glucose and insulin resistance, and higher disposition index. In the growth analysis, greater adiposity gain during childhood and adolescence was associated with higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, and lower disposition index, with stronger effects from adolescent gain. Greater childhood lean gain and adolescent height gain were associated with lower 120-min glucose and insulin. Consistent with other studies, lower birth weight and higher childhood weight gain increases diabetes risk. Disaggregation of weight gain showed that greater child/adolescent adiposity gain and lower lean and height gain may increase risk.
To document iodine status in Indian pregnancies, associations with maternal diet and demographics, and offspring developmental measures.
Longitudinal study following mothers through pregnancy and offspring up to 24 months.
Rural health-care centre (Vadu) and urban antenatal clinic (Pune) in the Maharashtra region of India.
Pregnant mothers at 17 (n 132) and 34 weeks’ (n 151) gestation and their infants from birth to the age of 24 months.
Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 203 and 211 μg/l at 17 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, respectively (range 26–800 μg/l). Using the UIC distribution adjusted for within-person variation, extreme UIC quartiles were compared for predictors and outcomes. There was no correlation between UIC at 17 and 34 weeks, but 24 % of those with UIC in the lowest quartile at 17 weeks had UIC in the same lowest quartile at 34 weeks. Maternal educational, socio-economic status and milk products consumption (frequency) were different between the lowest and highest quartile of UIC at 34 weeks. Selected offspring developmental outcomes differed between the lowest and highest UIC quartiles (abdominal circumference at 24 months, subscapular and triceps skinfolds at 12 and 24 months). However, UIC was only a weak predictor of subscapular skinfold at 12 months and of triceps skinfold at 24 months.
Median UIC in this pregnant population suggested adequate dietary provision at both gestational stages studied. Occasional high results found in spot samples may indicate intermittent consumption of iodine-rich foods. Maternal UIC had limited influence on offspring developmental outcomes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.