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COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
To improve contact tracing for healthcare workers, we built and configured a Bluetooth low-energy system. We predicted close contacts with great accuracy and provided an additional contact yield of 14.8%. This system would decrease the effective reproduction number by 56% and would unnecessarily quarantine 0.74% of employees weekly.
As space missions are needed in the future, the assembly volume of the space truss will become larger and larger, and the advancing path of the on-orbit cellular robot to the mission target will become more and more complicated. If the shortest moving path cannot be found in the truss environment, the climbing time of the robot on the truss will be greatly increased. To improve the speed of the cellular robot moving to the target point on the large space truss, this paper designs a cellular robot structure and configuration suitable for climbing on the truss and uses the improved sparrow algorithm to solve the problem of robot motion path planning. By establishing a mathematical model of the space truss, the improved sparrow algorithm is used to find the shortest path between the starting point and the end point in the truss environment. Finally, the data of this algorithm are compared with the data of other algorithms. The data results show that the improved sparrow algorithm is very effective in solving the optimal path of the space truss. The improved sparrow algorithm keeps the same optimal path compared with the standard sparrow algorithm, and the overall reaction time is increased by 51.60%, and the number of effective iterations is increased by about 13.87%.
Carotenoids are important bioactive substances in breast milk, the profile of which is seldom studied. This study aimed to explore the profile of carotenoids in breast milk and maternal/cord plasma of healthy mother–neonate pairs in Shanghai, China, and their correlation with dietary intake. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk samples from five lactation stages (colostrum, transitional milk and early-, mid- and late-term mature milk) were collected. Carotenoid levels were analysed by HPLC. Carotenoid levels in breast milk changed as lactation progressed (P < 0·001). β-Carotene was the primary carotenoid in colostrum. Lutein accounted for approximately 50 % of total carotenoids in transitional milk, mature milk and cord blood. Positive correlations were observed between five carotenoids in umbilical cord blood and maternal blood (P all < 0·001). β-Carotene levels were also correlated between maternal plasma and three stages of breast milk (r = 0·605, P < 0·001; r = 0·456, P = 0·011, r = 0·446; P = 0·013, respectively). Dietary carotenoid intakes of lactating mothers also differed across lactation stages, although no correlation with breast milk concentrations was found. These findings suggest the importance of exploring the transport mechanism of carotenoids between mothers and infants and help guide the development of formulas for Chinese infants as well as the nutritional diets of lactating mothers.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
To contribute to the treatment decision and optimize coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) control programs, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of coagulase-negative staphylococcus associated with bovine mastitis in China. Three databases (PubMed, Google scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database) were utilized to obtain relevant publications. A total of 18 publications were included in our research, and 3 of them included antimicrobial resistant (AMR) test. The pooled prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was 17.28%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence was higher in South China than in North China, was higher in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010 and was higher in clinical bovine mastitis cases than in subclinical cases. The pooled AMR were most resistant to β-lactams, followed by tetracyclines, quinolones, nitrofurans, lincosamides, sulfonamides, amphenicol and aminoglycosides. The pooled AMR rate of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was lower in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010. Although the prevalence of CNS showed an increasing trend over 20 years, the AMR rate showed a decreasing trend, and the clinical type of mastitis was the most frequent and the prevalence was highest in South China. Finally, CNS was most resistant to β-lactams amongst the eight groups of antimicrobial agents.
With the progress of industry, people are facing more and more complicated tasks, which cannot be completed by conventional rigid robot. For this, a deployable robot based on spherical linkage parallel mechanism was proposed to satisfy relevant requirements for the degrees of freedom in this study. Based on the design of robot model and its control box, a mathematical model for the robot was established, and the relationship between motion space and drive space was deduced accordingly. Subsequently, a control system consisting of the upper and lower computers was introduced. Two control modes, that is, Joystick control and remote control, were developed. The upper computer control interface for the robot was completed by MATLAB construction. At last, the two control modes as well as autonomous detection were demonstrated by motion test. This achievement will further advance the applications of deployable robot in job aid and intelligent exploration.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal female reproductive system tumour. Despite the great advances in surgery and systemic chemotherapy over the past two decades, almost all patients in stages III and IV relapse and develop resistance to chemotherapy after first-line treatment. Ovarian cancer has an extraordinarily complex immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in which immune checkpoints negatively regulate T cells activation and weaken antitumour immune responses by delivering immunosuppressive signals. Therefore, inhibition of immune checkpoints can break down the state of immunosuppression. Indeed, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised the therapeutic landscape of many solid tumours. However, ICIs have yielded modest benefits in ovarian cancer. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic basis of the immune checkpoints is needed to improve the efficacy of ICIs in ovarian cancer. In this review, we systematically introduce the mechanisms and expression of immune checkpoints in ovarian cancer. Moreover, this review summarises recent updates regarding ICI monotherapy or combined with other small-molecule-targeted agents in ovarian cancer.
3D object detection using point cloud is an essential task for autonomous driving. With the development of infrastructures, roadside perception can extend the view range of the autonomous vehicles through communication technology. Computation time and power consumption are two main concerns when deploying object detection tasks, and a light-weighted detection model applied in an embedded system is a convenient solution for both roadside and vehicleside. In this study, a 3D Point cLoud Object deTection (PLOT) network is proposed to reduce heavy computing and ensure real-time object detection performance in an embedded system. First, a bird’s eye view representation of the point cloud is calculated using pillar-based encoding method. Then a cross-stage partial network-based backbone and a feature pyramid network-based neck are implemented to generate the high-dimensional feature map. Finally, a multioutput head using a shared convolutional layer is attached to predict classes, bounding boxes, and the orientations of the objects at the same time. Extensive experiments using the Waymo Open Dataset and our own dataset are conducted to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Numerous animal models and epidemiological and observational studies have demonstrated that enterovirus (EV) infection could be involved in the development of clinical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but its aetiology is not fully understood. Therefore, we reviewed the association between EV infection and clinical T1DM. We searched PubMed and Embase from inception to April 2021 and reference lists of included studies without any language restrictions in only human studies. The correlation between EV infection and clinical T1DM was calculated as the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), analysed using random-effects models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the associations. A total of 25 articles (22 case–control studies and three nested case–control studies) met the inclusion criterion including 4854 participants (2948 cases and 1906 controls) with a high level of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 80%, P < 0.001) mainly attributable to methods of EV detection, study type, age distribution, source of EV sample and control subjects. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between EV infection and clinical T1DM (OR 5.75, 95% CI 3.61–9.61). There is a clinically significant association between clinical T1DM and EV infection.
As part of a long-term experiment to determine the impacts of composted manure and straw amendments (replacing 50% of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, wheat straw return combined with chemical fertilizer, and setting no fertilizer and chemical fertilizer-only as controls) on rice-associated weeds in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, species richness, abundance, density, and biomass of weeds were assessed during years 8 and 9. Fertilization decreased the species richness and total density of rice-associated weeds but increased their total biomass. The species richness and densities of broadleaf and sedge weeds decreased with fertilization, while species richness of grass weeds increased only with straw return and density was not significantly affected. The shoot biomass per square meter of grass and broadleaf weeds was significantly higher with fertilization treatments than with the no-fertilizer control, while that of sedge weeds declined with fertilizer application. With fertilization, the densities of monarch redstem (Ammannia baccifera L.) and smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) decreased, that of Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] increased, and those of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] and monochoria [Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl ex Kunth] were not significantly affected. Ammannia baccifera was the most abundant weed species in all treatments. Whereas composted pig manure plus fertilizer resulted in higher density of A. baccifera and lower shoot biomass per plant than chemical fertilizer only, wheat straw return plus chemical fertilizer caused lower density and shoot biomass of A. baccifera. Therefore, it may be possible that fertilization strategies that suppress specific weeds could be used as improved weed management program components in rice production systems.
This chapter introduces automation techniques for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These techniques are used for sperm motility and morphology quantification, sperm immobilization, sperm aspiration, oocyte orientation control, and sperm injection. Emerging techniques are also described such as computer assisted sperm analysis, laser immobilization, deep learning based polar body detection, and piezo drilling for reducing cell deformation in penetration. Finally, outlooks for future development of automation techniques in ICSI are provided.
A kinetostatic approach applied to the design of a backflip strategy for quadruped robots is proposed in this paper. Inspired by legged animals and taking the advantage of the leg workspace, this strategy provides an optimal design idea for the low-cost quadruped robots to achieve self-recovery after overturning. Through kinetostatic and energy analysis, a four-stepped backflip strategy based on the selected rotation axis with minimum energy is proposed, with a process of selection, lifting, rotating, and protection. The kinematic factors that affect the backflip are investigated, along with the relationship between the design parameters of the leg and trunk being analyzed. At the end of this paper, the strategy is validated by a simulation and experiments with a prototype called DRbot, demonstrating that the strategy endows the robot a strong self-recovery ability in various terrains.
Different from developed countries, there is a paucity of research examining how the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets relate to lipids in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR). A total of 83 081 participants from seven ethnic groups were retrieved from the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study, which was conducted in less-developed Southwest China between May 2018 and September 2019. Multivariable linear regression models were then used to examine the associations of the DASH and alternative Mediterranean diet (AMED) scores, assessed by modified DASH score and AMED, as well as their components with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and TC/HDL-cholesterol. The DASH scores were negatively associated with TC, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest DASH scores, TC decreased 0·0708 (95 % CI −0·0923, −0·0493) mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0380 (95 % CI −0·0462, −0·0299) mmol/l and TAG decreased 0·0668 (95 % CI −0·0994, −0·0341) mmol/l. The AMED scores were negatively associated with TC, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest AMED scores, TC decreased 0·0816 (95 % CI −0·1035, −0·0597) mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0297 (95 % CI −0·0477, −0·0118) mmol/l and HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0275 (95 % CI −0·0358, −0·0192) mmol/l. Although both the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet were negatively associated with blood lipids, those associations showed different patterns in LEMR, particularly for TAG and HDL-cholesterol.