To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the feasibility of using in-woods mobile pyrolysis systems to convert excess forest biomass into biochar. Biochar may be applied to forest sites in order to positively influence soil properties (nutrient leaching, water holding capacity), but its biggest benefit may be in facilitating reforestation of degraded or contaminated sites, and in sequestering carbon in soils. The majority of data on biochar applications on forest sites focus on seedling responses and short-term impacts on nutrients, soil physical properties and microbial changes. Long-term field research is necessary to determine water use, carbon sequestration, nutrient use, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the subsequent alteration of forest growth and stand dynamics.
Postnatal depression affects about 10–15% of women in the year after giving birth. Many women and healthcare professionals would like an effective and accessible non-pharmacological treatment for postnatal depression.
Women who fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria for major depression in the first 6 months postnatally were randomized to receive usual care plus a facilitated exercise intervention or usual care only. The intervention involved two face-to-face consultations and two telephone support calls with a physical activity facilitator over 6 months to support participants to engage in regular exercise. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 months post-randomization. Secondary outcomes included EPDS score as a binary variable (recovered and improved) at 6 and 12 months post-randomization.
A total of 146 women were potentially eligible and 94 were randomized. Of these, 34% reported thoughts of self-harming at baseline. After adjusting for baseline EPDS, analyses revealed a −2.04 mean difference in EPDS score, favouring the exercise group [95% confidence interval (CI) −4.11 to 0.03, p = 0.05]. When also adjusting for pre-specified demographic variables the effect was larger and statistically significant (mean difference = −2.26, 95% CI −4.36 to −0.16, p = 0.03). Based on EPDS score a larger proportion of the intervention group was recovered (46.5% v. 23.8%, p = 0.03) compared with usual care at 6 months follow-up.
This trial shows that an exercise intervention that involved encouragement to exercise and to seek out social support to exercise may be an effective treatment for women with postnatal depression, including those with thoughts of self-harming.
The user-managed inventory (UMI) is an emerging idea for enhancing the current distribution and maintenance system for emergency medical countermeasures (MCMs). It increases current capabilities for the dispensing and distribution of MCMs and enhances local/regional preparedness and resilience. In the UMI, critical MCMs, especially those in routine medical use (“dual utility”) and those that must be administered soon after an incident before outside supplies can arrive, are stored at multiple medical facilities (including medical supply or distribution networks) across the United States. The medical facilities store a sufficient cache to meet part of the surge needs but not so much that the resources expire before they would be used in the normal course of business. In an emergency, these extra supplies can be used locally to treat casualties, including evacuees from incidents in other localities. This system, which is at the interface of local/regional and federal response, provides response capacity before the arrival of supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and thus enhances the local/regional medical responders' ability to provide life-saving MCMs that otherwise would be delayed. The UMI can be more cost-effective than stockpiling by avoiding costs due to drug expiration, disposal of expired stockpiled supplies, and repurchase for replacement.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:408-414)
The purpose of this article is to set the context for this special issue of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness on the allocation of scarce resources in an improvised nuclear device incident. A nuclear detonation occurs when a sufficient amount of fissile material is brought suddenly together to reach critical mass and cause an explosion. Although the chance of a nuclear detonation is thought to be small, the consequences are potentially catastrophic, so planning for an effective medical response is necessary, albeit complex. A substantial nuclear detonation will result in physical effects and a great number of casualties that will require an organized medical response to save lives. With this type of incident, the demand for resources to treat casualties will far exceed what is available. To meet the goal of providing medical care (including symptomatic/palliative care) with fairness as the underlying ethical principle, planning for allocation of scarce resources among all involved sectors needs to be integrated and practiced. With thoughtful and realistic planning, the medical response in the chaotic environment may be made more effective and efficient for both victims and medical responders.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S20-S31)
Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The “RTR” system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other sites such as nursing homes and outpatient clinics, nationwide expert medical centers (such as cancer or burn centers), and possible alternate care facilities such as Federal Medical Stations. Assembly Centers for displaced or evacuating persons are predetermined and spontaneous sites safely outside of the perimeter of the incident, for use by those who need no immediate medical attention or only minor assistance. Decontamination requirements are important considerations for all RTR, Medical Care, and Assembly Center sites and transport vehicles. The US Department of Health and Human Services is working on a long-term project to generate a database for potential medical care sites and assembly centers so that information is immediately available should an incident occur.
In Australia, macropodids are common intermediate hosts for the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and sylvatic transmission is maintained via wild dogs. The parasite causes mortality in a number of macropodid species and the sylvatic cycle provides a source of infection to domestic livestock and humans. We determined the efficacy of the hydatid vaccine, EG95 in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, challenging either 1 or 9 months post-vaccination. EG95 provides similar protection to that seen in sheep (96–100%). Control tammars were significantly more likely to become infected (odds ratio 29·44; CI 4·13, 209·97; P=0·001) and to develop more cysts (count ratio 26·69; CI 5·83, 122·19; P<0·001). The vaccination may be beneficial if administered pre-release in captive breeding programmes for endangered macropodids. Further work to develop oral delivery methods may enable vaccine administration of wild animals and thereby a reduction in sylvatic transmission.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a staple food crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of Andean South America where it has been cultivated for millennia. Interest in quinoa, due largely to its superior nutritional characteristics, is fuelling a growing export market and has led to an increased focus on genetic research and the development of quinoa breeding programmes throughout South America. The success of these breeding programmes will rely heavily on the development of core germplasm collections and germplasm conservation. We report the development of a set of fluorescence-tagged microsatellite molecular markers that can be used to characterize genetic diversity within quinoa germplasm and we use this set of 36 microsatellites markers to genetically characterize the diversity of 121 accessions of C. quinoa held in the USDA germplasm bank, 22 accessions from the CIP-FAO international nursery collection and eight accessions representing parents from genetic mapping populations. A total of 420 alleles were detected among the quinoa accessions with an average of 11 alleles detected per microsatellite locus. Genetic heterogeneity was observed in 32% of the quinoa accessions at a given locus and suggests that many of these accessions represent heterogeneous seed lots or landraces. Both unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle components analysis (PCA) analyses partitioned the quinoa accessions into two main clusters. The first major cluster consisted of accessions from the Andean highlands of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina and extreme northeastern Chile. The other main cluster contained accessions from both the lowlands of Chile and a set of USDA accessions with no known passport data, collected by Emigdio Ballón. Using the patterns of genetic diversity detected within the C. quinoa accessions we discuss hypotheses regarding quinoa's centre of diversity, including highland and lowland ecotype clustering patterns, origin of lowland varieties, origin of domestication, and diversity levels in the USDA and CIP-FAO collections.
This paper was written by the Derivatives Working Party, a permanent working party of the Life Research Committee of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries. Our aim is to consider how life assurers may use, or may wish to use, derivatives, and if their use is unduly constrained, e.g. by regulation. This paper focuses on credit derivatives. We provide an overview of the credit derivatives market, and the strong growth in this market over recent years. We then focus on the two main traded credit derivative instruments — Credit Default Swaps (CDSs) and Collateralised Debt Obligations (CDOs). We explain how these instruments work and are priced, and clarify some of the more complex topics involved, such as the settlement of CDSs, basis risk and the relevance of implied correlation in pricing CDOs. We then consider how life insurers could make use of credit derivatives, for example to provide more efficient investment management in taking exposure to credit risk, or to hedge credit exposures, and consider the regulatory implications of so doing. Finally, in the Appendix, we discuss the credit spread puzzle, and the existence or otherwise of a liquidity premium in corporate bond spreads, with implications for the valuation of illiquid liabilities.
The search for extraterrestrial habitable planets will require long observation times and the intelligent selection of appropriate parent stars and target biosignatures. While life can certainly develop in the absence of photosynthesis, such life forms on earth exhibit metabolic rates several orders of magnitude less than the activity accompanying a photosynthetic-driven ecosystem. The most accessible spectral biosignatures are those accompanying a system driven away from thermodynamic equilibrium by photosynthetic activity. For example, the co-existence in a planetary atmosphere of significant amounts of ozone, oxygen, and methane would be a strong indication of biotic activity. Investigating the issue of the Habitable Zone from the standpoint of the constraints inherent in photosynthesis it appears that the absorption characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms on this planet make it likely that photosynthetic activity can exist on planets orbiting stars to red-ward of the Sun on the H-R diagram. Such a possibility is encouraging for terrestrial planet finder efforts since stars classified red-ward of our sun (G3 to K7) account for more than 55% of our nearest neighbors.
Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and δ13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and δ13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent.
The edge termination of SiC by the implantation of an inert ion species is used widely to increase the breakdown voltage of high power devices. We report results of the edge termination of Schottky barrier diodes using 30keV Ar+ ions with particular emphasis on the role of postimplant, relatively low temperature, annealing. The device leakage current measured at 100V is increased from 2.5nA to 7μA by the implantation of 30keV Ar+ ions at a dose of 1×1015 cm−2. This is reduced by two orders of magnitude following annealing at 600°C for 60 seconds, while a breakdown voltage in excess of 750V is maintained. The thermal evolution of the defects introduced by the implantation was monitored using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and deep-level-transient spectroscopy (DLTS). While a concentration of open-volume defects in excess of 1×1019cm−3 is measured using PAS in all samples, electrically active trapping sites are observed at concentrations ∼1×1015cm−3 using DLTS. The trap level is well-defined at Ec−Et = 0.9eV.
Photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy have been carried out at 6K on the 1540 nm 4I13/2 ← 4I15/2 emission of Er3+ in in situ Er-doped and Er-implanted GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The PL and PLE of these two different Er-doped HVPE-grown GaN films are compared with Er-implanted GaN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).
In the in situ Er-doped HVPE-grown GaN, the lineshape of the broad PLE absorption bands and the broad PL bands is similar to that in Er-doped glass. The PL spectra of this in situ Er-doped sample are independent of excitation wavelength, unlike the PL of the Er-implanted GaN. These PL spectra are quite different from the site-selective PL spectra observed in the Er-implanted GaN, indicating that the seven different Er sites existing in the Er-implanted MOCVD-grown GaN are not observed in the in situ Er-doped HVPE-grown GaN. Four of the seven different Er3+ sites observed in the Er-implanted MOCVD-grown GaN annealed at 900°C under a flow of N2 are present in the Er-implanted HVPE-grown GaN annealed at 800°C in an NH 3/H2 atmosphere.
Thin films of NiFe2O4 were deposited on SrTiO3 (001) and Y0.15Zr0.85O2 (yttria-stabilized zirconia) (001) and (011) substrates by 90°-off-axis sputtering. Ion channeling, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that films grown at 600 °C consist of ∼300 Å diameter grains separated by thin regions of highly defective or amorphous material. The development of this microstructure is attributed to the presence of rotated or displaced crystallographic domains and is comparable to that observed in other materials grown on mismatched substrates (e.g., GaAs/Si or Ba2YCu3O7/MgO). Postdeposition annealing at 1000 °C yields films that are essentially single crystal. The magnetic properties of the films are strongly affected by the structural changes; unannealed films are not magnetically saturated even in an applied field of 55 kOe, while the annealed films have properties comparable to those of bulk, single crystal NiFe2O4. Homoepitaxial films grown at 400 °C also are essentially single crystal.