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Sperm morphometric and morphologic data have been shown to represent useful tools for monitoring fertility, improving assisted reproduction techniques and conservation of genetic material as well as detecting inbreeding of endangered primates. We provide here for the first time sperm morphologic and morphometric data from Cercopithecus neglectus, Cercopithecus cephus, Papio papio and critically endangered Cercopithecus roloway, as well as comparative data from other Cercopithecinae species, i.e. Allochrocebus lhoesti, Mandrillus sphinx and Papio anubis. Following collection from the epididymis, spermatozoa were measured for each species for the following parameters: head length, head width, head perimeter, head area, midpiece length and total flagellum length, and the head volume, ellipticity, elongation, roughness and regularity were then calculated. Our data are consistent with both the general morphology and the morphometric proportions of Cercopithecinae sperm. Some specificities were observed, with C. cephus displaying a narrow head (width = 2.76 ± 0.26 µM) and C. roloway displaying a short midpiece (6.65 ± 0.61 µM). This data set represents an important contribution, especially for Cercopithecus roloway, one of the most endangered monkeys in the world, and further data on additional specimens coupled to data on mating systems and reproductive ecology should allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morphological differences across primate species.
Discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Abri Casserole (Dordogne, France) was the subject of salvage excavations in the early nineties. The fieldwork revealed a sequence of 13 archaeological levels that document human occupations from the Gravettian to the Magdalenian, including very rare and poorly known assemblages (e.g. Early Badegoulian, Protosolutrean) that afford a particular importance to this sequence. Results of a previous dating program that focused on the Badegoulian levels were obtained in 1994 but were neither extensively published nor discussed. Five AMS 14C ages obtained for the Gravettian and Solutrean assemblages in the early 2010s served to complement the site’s chronology. However, since the beta counting ages for the Badegoulian levels were in conflict with the accepted AMS chronology for the region’s late Pleniglacial archaeological record, a new AMS dating program was implemented to renew the radiometric framework of this specific portion of the sequence. Compared to the previous beta counting measurements, the seven newly obtained AMS ages are about 1000 years older (23.3–20.5 cal ka BP) and congruent with other AMS-dated Badegoulian sequences. These results thereby restore the inter-site chronological coherence of the Solutrean–Badegoulian and Badegoulian–Magdalenian transitions.
This is a naturalistic study comparing the outcomes of all emergency psychiatric interventions in the Hospital Center of Luxemburg during two periods of six months each, before and after the introduction of a crisis intervention program. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and economic impact of crisis intervention on psychiatric emergency admissions.
All subjects admitted to the emergency psychiatric unit during the two study periods were considered for participation. Data were collected retrospectively and comparisons were made between patients before (September 1, 2001 to February 28, 2002) and after (September 1, 2002 to February 28, 2003) crisis intervention programs were established.
A comparison between the two patient groups demonstrated a significant decrease in the rate of voluntary hospitalizations after crisis intervention, and a significant increase in the number of patients with subsequent outpatient consultations. The cost increase due to ambulatory follow-ups was widely compensated for by the cost decrease due to hospitalization avoidance.
These preliminary findings suggest that crisis intervention leads to a shift from hospitalization to outpatient psychotherapeutic management in emergency psychiatric services, which has a significant economic impact.
Young patients suffering from rhythm disorders have a negative impact in their quality of life. In recent years, ablation has become the first-line therapy for supraventricular arrhythmias in children. In the light of the current expertise and advancement in the field, we decided to evaluate the quality of life in young patients with supraventricular arrhythmias before and after a percutaneous ablation procedure.
The prospective cohort consisted of patients <18 years with structurally normal hearts and non-pre-excited supraventricular arrhythmias, who had an ablation in our centre from 2013 to 2018. The cohort was evaluated with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales self-questionnaire prior to and post-ablation.
The final cohort included 88 patients consisted of 52 males (59%), with a mean age at ablation of 12.5 ± 3.3 years. Forty-two patients (48%) had a retrograde-only accessory pathway mediating the tachycardia, 38 (43%) had atrio-ventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia, 7 (8%) had ectopic atrial tachycardia, and 1 (1%) had atrial flutter. The main reason for an ablation was the patient’s choice in 53%. There were no severe complications. Comparison between the baseline and post-ablation assessments showed that patients reported significant improvement in the scores for physical health, emotional and social functioning, as well as in the total scores.
The present study demonstrates that the successful treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias by means of an ablation results in a significant improvement in the quality of self-reported life scores in young patients.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underdiagnosed and undertreated in schizophrenia, and has been strongly associated with impaired quality of life.
To determine the prevalence and associated factors of MDD and unremitted MDD in schizophrenia, to compare treated and non-treated MDD.
Participants were included in the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical assessment. MDD was defined by a Calgary score ≥6. Non-remitted MDD was defined by current antidepressant treatment (unchanged for >8 weeks) and current Calgary score ≥6.
613 patients were included and 175 (28.5%) were identified with current MDD. MDD has been significantly associated with respectively paranoid delusion (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.01), avolition (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02), blunted affect (odds ratio 1.7; P = 0.04) and benzodiazepine consumption (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02). Antidepressants were associated with lower depressive symptoms score (5.4 v. 9.5; P < 0.0001); however, 44.1% of treated patients remained in non-remittance MDD. Nonremitters were found to have more paranoid delusion (odds ratio 2.3; P = 0.009) and more current alcohol misuse disorder (odds ratio 4.8; P = 0.04). No antidepressant class or specific antipsychotic were associated with higher or lower response to antidepressant treatment. MDD was associated with Metabolic syndrome (31.4 v. 20.2%; P = 0.006) but not with increased C-reactive protein.
Antidepressant administration is associated with lower depressive symptom level in patients with schizophrenia and MDD. Paranoid delusions and alcohol misuse disorder should be specifically explored and treated in cases of non-remission under treatment. MetS may play a role in MDD onset and/or maintenance in patients with schizophrenia.
This chapter continues this book's reflections on historiographical writing in the imperial milieu. It focuses on Rudolf of Ems's Weltchronik, written in the first half of the thirteenth century and dedicated to King Konrad IV, the son of the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The Weltchronik is a crucial work in the development of Middle High German historiography. This chapter interrogates its social background (including Rudolf's close ties with the Hohenstaufen family), exploring the traces it left in the author's organization of his material. The chapter delineates some characteristics of early vernacular historiography in the Empire to show how it asserted itself in relation to Latin literature.
L'exposé qui suit consiste en une présentation, nécessairement tres incomplete, de la premiere chronique universelle rimée en langue allemande affichant l'ambition d'englober l'ensemble de l'histoire de l'humanité ainsi qu'un véritable savoir encyclopédique. Deux textes, l’Annolied composé vers la fin du XIe siecle et dont la réception fut probablement assez limitée, et la Kaiserchronik, beaucoup plus célebre que ce dernier et datée de 1150 environ, lui ont ouvert la voie. La Weltchronik de Rudolf von Ems est a peu pres contemporaine de la Sächsische Weltchronik, en prose, et de la Christherre-Chronik, dont la perspective est plus clairement théologique. Bien que restée a l’état de fragment, elle témoigne d'une ambition sans précédent dans le domaine de l'historiographie en langue vernaculaire, ce qui s'explique en grande partie par le fait que son commanditaire, Konrad IV, appartenait a une brillante dynastie royale, celle des Hohenstaufen, qui fut aussi la plus controversée de son temps. Cette image a double face de la dynastie souabe n'est sans doute pas étrangere a son succes: le texte de Rudolf a été l'objet d'un intéret sans cesse renouvelé, non seulement au Moyen Âge ou il engendra une tradition historiographique tres riche, par le biais de nombreuses compilations incluant la Christherre-Chronik et la Weltchronik du Viennois Jans Enikel, et dont la Weltchronik attribuée a Heinrich von München est, au xive siecle, l'un des représentants les plus spectaculaires, mais aussi a l’époque contemporaine, dans la recherche, ou elle a suscité des études tres denses.
Small-scale mariculture of high-value species for trade in remote islands can offer valuable alternative livelihoods to local communities. The endangered giant clam species Tridacna maxima is naturally abundant in some atolls in French Polynesia (FP) and has been the focus of commercial mariculture activities since 2012. Shortly after spat collectors became operational in two atoll lagoons, FP rose to become one of the main exporters of giant clams for the aquarium trade. However, this activity has been threatened recently by a mass clam-bleaching event triggered by the 2015–2016 El Niño. This study reviews the roles that international (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and national regulatory frameworks play in the development of this activity in a small island context, and how they can indirectly promote better science and monitoring in order to inform adaptive management strategies. The links between the nine main groups of stakeholders show the necessary adaptation measures required to mitigate climate-driven mortalities. While this case study remains specific to giant clam farming in FP, general lessons are provided that could help in mitigating economic impacts from climate-related events on other islands.
We develop numerical methods for the simulation of laden-flows where particles interact with the carrier fluid through drag forces. Semi-Lagrangian techniques are presented to handle the Vlasov-type equation which governs the evolution of the particles. We discuss several options to treat the coupling with the hydrodynamic system describing the fluid phase, paying attention to strategies based on staggered discretizations of the fluid velocity.
It has been suggested that the language problems encountered in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impaired procedural memory. However, recent serial reaction time (SRT) studies did not reveal any differences between the SLI and typically developing (TD) groups on the measures of procedural memory linked to visual sequence learning. In this paper, 16 children with and without SLI were compared on two versions of SRT tasks: a visual task and an auditory one. The results showed that children with SLI were as fast as their TD peers in both modalities. All of the children obtained similar specific sequence learning indices, indicating that they were able to detect regularities in both modalities. Although children with SLI were as accurate as their TD peers for the visual SRT task, they made more errors than their TD peers in auditory SRT conditions. The results indicate that, in relation to procedural memory, the core of the impairment in SLI is not linked to difficulties in the detection of regularities. We argue that when children with SLI present some difficulties, the children's weaknesses might depend on the type of processing involved (e.g., tasks involving auditory sequences).
The oligosaccharides 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose are major constituents of human breast milk but are not found in mouse milk. Milk oligosaccharides have a prebiotic action, thus affecting the colonisation of the infant intestine by microbiota. To determine the specific effect of fucosyllactose exposure on intestinal microbiota in mice, in the present study, we orally supplemented newborn mice with pure 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose. Exposure to 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose increased the levels of bacteria of the Porphyromonadaceae family in the intestinal gut, more precisely members of the genus Barnesiella as analysed by 16S pyrosequencing. The ability of Barnesiella to utilise fucosyllactose as energy source was confirmed in bacterial cultures. Whereas B.intestinihominis and B.viscericola did not grow on fucose alone, they proliferated in the presence of 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose following the secretion of linkage-specific fucosidase enzymes that liberated lactose. The change in the composition of intestinal microbiota mediated by fucosyllactose supplementation affected the susceptibility of mice to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis, as indicated by increased resistance of mice subjected to 2-fucosyllactose supplementation for 6 weeks. The present study underlines the ability of specific milk oligosaccharides to change the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby to shape an intestinal milieu resilient to inflammatory diseases.
The long-term behavior of nuclear glass subjected to alpha radiation by minor actinides must be investigated with a view to geological disposal. This study focuses on the effect of alpha radiation on the chemical reactivity of R7T7 glass with pure water, mainly on the residual alteration rate regime. A glass specimen doped with 0.85 wt% 239PuO2 (α emitter) is leached under static conditions in argon atmosphere at 90°C and at a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V = 20 cm−1). The alteration rate is monitored by the release of glass alteration tracer elements (B, Na and Li). Radiation effects on the leached glass and its gel network are characterized by SEM and TEM analyses. Plutonium release is also measured by radiometry and its chemical oxidation state is assessed by measuring the pH and redox potential of the leachates. The results do not highlight any significant effect of alpha radiation on the residual alteration of this doped glass. This observation is consistent with SEM and TEM characterizations, which show that a protective layer can be formed under alpha radiation. Very low concentrations of soluble plutonium are measured in the leachate. These Pu releases are three orders of magnitude lower than the boron release, indicating strong plutonium retention.
We propose a numerical solution to incorporate in the simulation of a system of conservation laws boundary conditions that come from a microscopic modeling in the small mean free path regime. The typical example we discuss is the derivation of the Euler system from the BGK equation. The boundary condition relies on the analysis of boundary layers formation that accounts from the fact that the incoming kinetic flux might be far from the thermodynamic equilibrium.
Background: The medical care of elderly patients with psychotic disorders is a matter of major concern. The aim of the study was to investigate health conditions and treatment of elderly patients with psychotic disorders in France.
Methods: The SAGE (Schizophrenia AGEd) study (observational, cross-sectional) was a survey conducted among 123 physicians in France, regarding prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs in elderly patients (≥60 years) suffering from psychotic disorders. The survey was based on a questionnaire addressing the mental and somatic health management of the patients.
Results: Data from 930 patients (mean age: 70.4 years) were collected. Most patients (58.5%) suffered from schizophrenia, 20.8% had delusional disorder and 20.6% hallucinatory chronic psychosis (very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis). 70.8% of them were outpatients, while 29.2% were inpatients. The severity of psychotic symptoms was assessed in 97.8% of patients, but cognitive function was only evaluated in 41.6%. Some 46.5% of patients were treated with atypical antipsychotics alone, 36.2% with classical antipsychotics alone and 17.3% received a combination of both, atypical and classical antipsychotics; 36.3% patients were given antiparkinsonian medication, of whom only 17.8% as preventive treatment; 51.1% of patients had somatic comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disorders (34.0%). Evaluation of renal and/or liver function to adjust the dose of treatment was done in only 32.1% of patients. Over the previous 12 months, almost half of the patients had had no ECG, glycemia or creatininemia investigated and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were available for less than one-third of them.
Conclusions: Antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian drug prescriptions in French aged psychotic patients follow only partially the clinical guidelines and recommendations of consensus conferences. Moreover, cognitive, cardiac and metabolic aspects are not fully managed as expected.
First we investigate the spectral and photometric properties (colours, magnitudes) of a sample of faint Be stars observed in the first exoplanet fields of CoRoT (IR1, LRA1 and LRC1). We determine the fundamental parameters by fitting ESO-FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra with synthetic models taking account for non-LTE effects. After that we correct these parameters from fast rotation effects. We also study the location of each star in the (logL vs logT) HR diagram. Second we start to analyse the CoRoT light curves to investigate further the possible correlation between the pulsating properties and the fundamental parameters of the stars.
First results of near-IR adaptive optics (AO)-assisted imaging, interferometry, and spectroscopy of this Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) are presented. They suggest that the Pistol Star is at least double. If the association is physical, it would reinforce questions concerning the importance of multiplicity for the formation and evolution of extremely massive stars.
The modelling and the numerical resolution of the electrical charging of a
spacecraft in interaction with the Earth magnetosphere is considered. It involves the Vlasov-Poisson system, endowed with non standard boundary conditions.
We discuss the pros and cons of several numerical methods for solving this system, using as benchmark a simple 1D model which exhibits the main difficulties of the original models.