To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Technological opportunities are explored to enhance detection schemes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that build on the detection of single-electron scattering events across the typical spectrum of interdisciplinary applications. They range from imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution to diffraction experiments at the window to quantum mechanics, where the wave-particle dualism of single electrons is evident. At the ultimate detection limit, where isolated electrons are delivered to interact with solids, we find that the beam current dominates damage processes instead of the deposited electron charge, which can be exploited to modify electron beam-induced sample alterations. The results are explained by assuming that all electron scattering are inelastic and include phonon excitation that can hardly be distinguished from elastic electron scattering. Consequently, a coherence length and a related coherence time exist that reflect the interaction of the electron with the sample and change linearly with energy loss. Phonon excitations are of small energy (<100 meV), but they occur frequently and scale with beam current in the irradiated area, which is why we can detect their contribution to beam-induced sample alterations and damage.
Differentiation between post-operative inflammation and bacterial infection remains an important issue in infants following congenital heart surgery. We primarily assessed kinetics and predictive value of C-reactive protein for bacterial infection in the early (days 0–4) and late (days 5–28) period after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Secondary objectives were frequency, type, and timing of post-operative infection related to the risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score.
This 3-year single-centre retrospective cohort study in a paediatric cardiac ICU analysed 191 infants accounting for 235 episodes of CPBP surgery. Primary outcome was kinetics of CRP in the first 28 days after CPBP surgery in infected and non-infected patients.
We observed 22 infectious episodes in the early and 34 in the late post-operative period. CRP kinetics in the early post-operative period did not accurately differentiate between infected and non-infected patients. In the late post-operative period, infected infants displayed significantly higher CRP values with a median of 7.91 (1.64–22.02) and 6.92 mg/dl (1.92–19.65) on days 2 and 3 compared to 4.02 (1.99–15.9) and 3.72 mg/dl (1.08–9.72) in the non-infection group. Combining CRP on days 2 and 3 after suspicion of infection revealed a cut-off of 9.47 mg/L with an acceptable predictive accuracy of 76%.
In neonates and infants, CRP kinetics is not useful to predict infection in the first 72 hours after CPBP surgery due to the inflammatory response. However, in the late post-operative period, CRP is a valuable adjunctive diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical presentation and microbiological diagnostics.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination effectiveness in healthcare personnel (HCP) has been established. However, questions remain regarding its performance in high-risk healthcare occupations and work locations. We describe the effect of a COVID-19 HCP vaccination campaign on SARS-CoV-2 infection by timing of vaccination, job type, and work location.
We conducted a retrospective review of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance, incidence of postvaccination COVID-19, hospitalization, and mortality among 16,156 faculty, students, and staff at a large academic medical center. Data were collected 8 weeks prior to the start of phase 1a vaccination of frontline employees and ended 11 weeks after campaign onset.
The COVID-19 incidence rate among HCP at our institution decreased from 3.2% during the 8 weeks prior to the start of vaccinations to 0.38% by 4 weeks after campaign initiation. COVID-19 risk was reduced among individuals who received a single vaccination (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.68; P < .0001) and was further reduced with 2 doses of vaccine (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.32; P < .0001). By 2 weeks after the second dose, the observed case positivity rate was 0.04%. Among phase 1a HCP, we observed a lower risk of COVID-19 among physicians and a trend toward higher risk for respiratory therapists independent of vaccination status. Rates of infection were similar in a subgroup of nurses when examined by work location.
Our findings show the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in HCP. Despite these encouraging results, unvaccinated HCP remain at an elevated risk of infection, highlighting the need for targeted outreach to combat vaccine hesitancy.
Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
The complementary activity of 4-hydroxphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors and atrazine is well documented, but the use of atrazine is restricted in some geographic areas, including the province of Quebec in Canada, necessitating the evaluation of atrazine alternatives and their interactions with HPPD inhibitors. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mixing HPPD inhibitors with atrazine alternative photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors, such as metribuzin and linuron applied PRE or bromoxynil and bentazon applied POST, results in similar control of multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] in corn (Zea mays L.). Ten field trials, five with herbicides applied PRE and five with herbicides applied POST, were conducted in Ontario, Canada, in fields infested with MHR A. tuberculatus. Isoxaflutole, applied PRE, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 58% to 76%; control increased 17% to 34% with the addition of atrazine, metribuzin, or linuron at three of five sites across 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk after application (WAA). The interaction between isoxaflutole and PS II inhibitors, applied PRE, was additive for MHR A. tuberculatus control and biomass and density reduction. Mesotrione, tolpyralate, and topramezone, applied POST, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 54% to 59%, 61%, and 44% to 45%, respectively, at two of five sites across 4, 8, and 12 WAA. The addition of atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon to mesotrione improved MHR A. tuberculatus control 29%, 34%, and 22%; to tolpyralate, improved control 2%, 20%, and 10%; and to topramezone, improved control 3%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. Interactions between HPPD and PS II inhibitors were mostly additive; however, synergistic responses were observed with mesotrione + bromoxynil or bentazon, and tolpyralate + bromoxynil. Mixing atrazine alternatives metribuzin or linuron with isoxaflutole, applied PRE, and bromoxynil or bentazon with mesotrione or tolpyralate, applied POST, resulted in similar or better control of MHR A. tuberculatus in corn.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Leverage community engagement to continue moving translational science and research forward. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Engaging community in translational research improves innovation and speeds the movement of evidence into practice. Yet, it is unclear how community is engaged across the translational research spectrum or the degree of community-engagement used. We conducted a scoping review to fill this gap. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the PRISMA model search strategy with a range of databases (e.g., PubMed/Medline, Scopus) to identify articles published between January 2008 and November 2018 (n=167) and eliminated studies that did not use any level of community-engagement (n=102). Studies were coded for translational stage-corresponding to T0 (basic science), T1 (basic science to clinical research in humans; n=6), T2 (clinical efficacy and effectiveness research, n=45), T3 (dissemination and implementation research, n=95), and T4 (population health, n=21) as well as the degree of community engagement from least to most intensive (i.e., outreach, consultation, involvement, collaboration, shared leadership). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The final number of eligible articles was 65. There was a relatively balanced distribution across levels of community engagement across articles (i.e., outreach, n=14; consultation, n=13; involvement, n=7; collaboration, n=15; shared leadership, n=16). Within these articles, the depth of community engagement varied with higher engagement typically occurring at later stages of translational research (T3 and T4), but more specifically in the dissemination and implementation science stage (T3). However, shared leadership, the most intensive form of engagement, was found in T2, T3, and T4 studies suggesting the value of community-engagement across the translational research spectrum. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: A strong understanding of how various levels of community engagement are used in translational research, and the outcomes they produce, may to expedite the translation of knowledge into practice and enable practice-based needs to inform policy.
Left ventricular non-compaction has been associated with heart failure, arrhythmia, thromboembolism and sudden death. The prevalence of non-compaction in patients with coarctation of the aorta and its clinical significance remains unknown, although obstructive left heart disease is common in patients with non-compaction. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular non-compaction in patients with repaired aortic coarctation as well as its effect on left ventricular size and systolic function.
Methods and results:
In total, 268 patients (Mean age 26 (inter-quartile range 21–37) years, 63% male) undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for clinical follow-up were included from three tertiary centres for adult congenital heart disease. Clinical data was obtained from medical records and correlated with ventricular volumes and function. Left ventricular non-compaction was defined as a diastolic non-compacted:compacted dimension ratio >2.3 in the worst affected segment on a long-axis view. Left ventricular non-compaction was present in 8.2% of patients with repaired coarctation. Left ventricular end-diastolic volumes and stroke volumes were significantly higher in patients with non-compaction compared to those without. There were no significant differences in ventricular mass or ejection fraction in these two groups.
Left ventricular non-compaction is relatively common in patients with repaired coarctation of the aorta and correlates with increased left ventricular end-diastolic volumes.
Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
Control of waterhemp is becoming more difficult in Ontario because biotypes have evolved resistance to four herbicide sites of action (SOA), including groups 2, 5, 9, and 14. The objective of this study was to compare PRE, POST, and PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for their effect on control, density, and biomass of multiple-herbicide–resistant (MHR) waterhemp as well as corn injury and grain yield. Two separate field studies, each consisting of five field trials, were conducted over a 2-yr period (2018 and 2019) in fields where corn was grown in Ontario, Canada. The first experiment evaluated MHR waterhemp control with an inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) applied PRE, PRE fb glufosinate applied POST, and glufosinate applied POST. The second experiment evaluated MHR waterhemp control with a non-HPPD inhibitor applied PRE, then PRE fb a POST application of atrazine + mesotrione, and then atrazine + mesotrione applied POST. Atrazine + isoxaflutole caused 3% to 5% corn injury at environment 1 (E1); no corn injury was observed with PRE and POST herbicide programs at environments E2, E3, E4, and E5. In general, atrazine/bicyclopyrone/mesotrione/S-metolachlor and dimethenamid-P/saflufenacil applied PRE controlled MHR waterhemp ≥95% 12 wk after POST application (WAA). A POST application of glufosinate following atrazine + tolpyralate PRE, and a POST application of atrazine + mesotrione following atrazine/dicamba or atrazine/S-metolachlor PRE, improved control at 4, 8, and 12 WAA in most environments. In general, PRE fb POST applications resulted in better control of MHR waterhemp throughout the growing season than single PRE and POST applications (P < 0.05). We conclude that herbicide programs based on multiple effective SOAs may offer effective control of MHR waterhemp where field corn is grown. It is advisable that when choosing an herbicide application program that excellent control of MHR waterhemp should be the goal given its high fecundity and competitive ability.
Trematode prevalence and abundance in hosts are known to be affected by biotic drivers as well as by abiotic drivers. In this study, we used the unique salinity gradient found in the south-western Baltic Sea to: (i) investigate patterns of trematode infections in the first intermediate host, the periwinkle Littorina littorea and in the downstream host, the mussel Mytilus edulis, along a regional salinity gradient (from 13 to 22) and (ii) evaluate the effects of first intermediate host (periwinkle) density, host size and salinity on trematode infections in mussels. Two species dominated the trematode community, Renicola roscovita and Himasthla elongata. Salinity, mussel size and density of infected periwinkles were significantly correlated with R. roscovita, and salinity and density correlated with H. elongata abundance. These results suggest that salinity, first intermediate host density and host size play an important role in determining infection levels in mussels, with salinity being the main major driver. Under expected global change scenarios, the predicted freshening of the Baltic Sea might lead to reduced trematode transmission, which may be further enhanced by a potential decrease in periwinkle density and mussel size.
Previous research indicates that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with risk of suicidality. However, studies have relied on small and/or specialist samples and largely focussed on adults, despite these difficulties commonly emerging in youth. Furthermore, the aetiology of the relationship remains unknown.
Two independent twin samples were identified through the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, at ages 18 (N = 6027) and 24 (N = 3454). Participants completed a self-report measure of BDD symptom severity. Young people and parents completed items assessing suicidal ideation/behaviours. Logistic regression models tested the association of suicidality outcomes with: (a) probable BDD, classified using an empirically derived cut-off; and (b) continuous scores of BDD symptoms. Bivariate genetic models examined the aetiology of the association between BDD symptoms and suicidality at both ages.
Suicidal ideation and behaviours were common among those with probable BDD at both ages. BDD symptoms, measured continuously, were linked with all aspects of suicidality, and associations generally remained significant after adjusting for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between BDD symptoms and suicidality (72.9 and 77.7% at ages 18 and 24, respectively), but with significant non-shared environmental influences (27.1 and 22.3% at ages 18 and 24, respectively).
BDD symptoms are associated with a substantial risk of suicidal ideation and behaviours in late adolescence and early adulthood. This relationship is largely explained by common genetic liability, but non-shared environmental effects are also significant and could provide opportunities for prevention among those at high-risk.
Written by a highly respected team of authors brought together by the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP), this book provides accessible insights into pressing social problems in the United States in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes public policy responses for victims and justice, precarious populations, employment dilemmas and health and well-being.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.