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Genetic studies in the social sciences could be augmented through the additional consideration of functional (transcriptome, methylome, metabolome) and/or multimodal genetic data when attempting to understand the genetics of social phenomena. Understanding the biological pathways linking genetics and the environment will allow scientists to better evaluate the functional importance of polygenic scores.
Certain events that took place during the 2012 Melbourne Festival linked Jalan Malioboro (Malioboro Street), Yogyakarta, and Swanston Street, Melbourne – two streets some 4,500 kilometres apart. Swanston Street and other parts of the city of Melbourne became the locations where, to use Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift's gloss on the potential of cities to organize experience, ‘the far became near and distance was redefined.’ A performance called Grobak Padi that was staged as part of the Festival formed transnational urban connections through activities in the squares and the streets and created a moment in which distance was redefined and the world could be inhabited from afar. A grobak is an Indonesian food cart that typically sells cheap local dishes as it moves through urban and other spaces in Indonesia. Several grobaks were imported from Yogyakarta for the 2012 Melbourne Festival. After being dismantled in Yogyakarta and reassembled in Melbourne, they became travelling objects in more ways than one as they negotiated the streets of Melbourne and stopped in squares and on the riverbank to sell satay and other dishes. Festival-goers who clustered around the grobaks became not only spectators or consumers of the food, but also part of the performance. The official Grobak Padi flyer announced that the performance offered ‘a little piece of Java in the heart of the city’ that would take the form of ‘an intimate exchange between cultures and cities.’ Described also as ‘a deliciously cross-cultural performance piece,’ what made this intimate exchange and the cultural interaction across distance possible was the addition of media technology to the grobaks. Through mediated exchanges between citizens in Melbourne and Yogyakarta, the grobaks created the conditions for global connections that went beyond the need for physical proximity to develop social relations across distance. This chapter examines the ways in a performative moment conquered physical distance to create an imagined presence of the global other.
Keywords: Yogyakarta, Melbourne, mobile performance, food carts, travelling objects, technology
Grobak Padi and the Melbourne Festival
Events that took place during the 2012 Melbourne Festival connected Jalan Malioboro (Malioboro Street), Yogyakarta and Swanston Street, Melbourne – two streets some 4,500 kilometres apart.
Much has been said regarding the global flows of information that are characteristic of modernity; it has been frequently stressed that these conduits are so deeply embedded that local or national environments may be imagined as having a global span. Thus, while we are now well aware that the imagination is integral to global cultural processes, questions still arise about how the imagination of life with a global span is made possible at the level of everyday social practices. This book examines performative interventions that can generate a re-imagining of local publics — both spatially grounded and mediatized — and help to renegotiate the connection between the local and the global. After the 'performative turn' of the 1960s, it has been understood that shared experience of performance as event or spectacle can transform interpretations of the global and the local and create new meanings, and this book continues in the direction of this important tradition, while also fully expanding on its consequences.
It is now widely accepted that a key feature of life in our era is the deepening engagement of the local with the global. Ulrich Beck has defined globalization as:
a non-linear, dialectic process in which the global and the local do not exist as cultural polarities but as combined and mutually implicating principles. These processes involve not only interconnections across boundaries, but transform the quality of the social and political inside nation-state societies. (Beck 2002, p. 17)
The consequences of these mutually implicating principles, and the social and political transformations they might bring about, have been well examined in the context of cultural, economic and technological flows between sites in the developed world. Less attention has been paid to global circuits of exchange outside the West. Some notable exceptions have highlighted interconnections between countries of the global South and increasingly intense inter-Asia cultural flows (see, for example, Iwabuchi et al. 2004; Chen and Chua 2007; Chen 2010; Goh 2015). Cultural flows exceed and move beyond economic and political relationships, resulting in cultural traffic that can often be found moving in many different directions simultaneously (cf. Ahmed and Donnan 1994). To fully grasp the power of globalization to collapse the polarities and transform culture at the local or national level, we need to look beyond the economic, financial and material aspects to the imaginative and less tangible dimensions of social reality. Novel ideas and meanings can also transform local cultural sensibilities and give rise to an expanded consciousness – what we now understand, after Manfred Steger, as the ‘global imaginary’ (Steger 2008). Images and symbols of the global that can promote this new consciousness increasingly appear in the public domain, in particular, but not exclusively, in the urban, mediatized and consumption-oriented spaces we recognize as sites of modernity. Alongside these visual cues, certain performative practices have the power to create an imagined connection with the global. These imaginaries, as Steger asserts, acquire solidity – a sense of the ‘real’– through the (re)construction of social space and the repetitive performance of certain communal qualities (Steger 2008, p. 7). How this awareness of the global is generated in specific contexts and sites of cultural activity still remains to be discovered.
Provision of bereavement support is an essential component of palliative care service delivery. While bereavement support is integral to palliative care, it is typically insufficiently resourced, under-researched, and not systematically applied. Our aim was to develop bereavement standards to assist palliative care services to provide targeted support to family caregivers.
We employed a multiple-methods design for our study, which included: (1) a literature review, (2) a survey of palliative care service providers in Australia, (3) interviews with national (Australian) and international experts, (4) key stakeholder workshops, and (5) a modified Delphi-type survey.
A total of 10 standards were developed along with a pragmatic care pathway to assist palliative care services with implementation of the standards.
Significance of results:
The bereavement standards and care pathway constitute a key initiative in the evolution of bereavement support provided by palliative care services. Future endeavors should refine and examine the impact of these standards. Additional research is required to enhance systematic approaches to quality bereavement care.
Scholars have tended to assume that social policies are national policies (Kazepov, 2010, p 35), with comparisons of national data dominating comparative analyses of welfare. This seems natural, since the ‘welfare state’ developed historically and conceptually within the frame of the ‘nation-state’, with policies ‘characterised by a collective management of individual standardised risks’ (Kazepov, 2010, p 42). States became the world's ‘social containers’, each national population being treated as ‘a cohesive social grouping that constituted a moral and practical social system’ (Taylor, 1994, p 156). As Keating (2009, pp 268–9) observes, T.H. Marshall's (1992) famous account of the development of citizenship, culminating with welfare states rooted in ‘social citizenship’, takes for granted that the nation-state is synonymous with the political, legal and social community.
Yet globalisation challenges some of these assumptions. The competition state thesis provides a nuanced account of the adaption of the welfare functions of the state in the face of intensified global competition, whereby the state has been reconfigured to sit at the ‘crossroads’ of global governance, transmitting the market discipline of the global capitalist economy within the borders of the national state (Cerny, 1997; 2010). A number of authors have observed the ways in which nation-states are increasingly enmeshed within more complex governance structures, ceding powers both ‘upwards’ to supranational institutions and ‘downwards’ to subnational levels of organisation (Hirst and Thompson, 1999). Pauly and Grande (2005, p 4) have observed the manner in which governance structures at all levels are becoming increasingly complex, leading to ‘multiple and overlapping hierarchies’. While states are now routinely enmeshed in a range of international and supranational organisations ‘above’ them, they may also have various incentives to loosen controls over subnational units of governance or areas of territory within or ‘below’ the state as a whole.
Keating (2001, p 53) highlights various strategies states that have traditionally used for managing their territories such that the competing claims of different populations and areas could be reconciled and the state's overall territorial integrity maintained.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
Despite the stylish blend of multimedia and live performance in Robert Lepage's The Blue Dragon, touring in 2010 and 2011, critics are surprised by the reappearance of the archetypal love story in the space of contemporary intermedial performance. This article argues that the performance, set in contemporary Shanghai, explores the lived experience of transience and mobility through a narrative in which individual lives are implicated in a transnational, transcultural and transgenerational romance. Drawing on Zygmunt Bauman's work on liquid modernity and liquid love, we argue that the performance grapples with the experience of being unbound and disconnected in a liquid world.
Aqueous corrosion of zirconium alloys has become the major factor limiting prolonged fuel campaigns in nuclear plant. Studies using SEM, TEM and electrochemical impedance measurements have been interpreted as showing a dense inner-most oxide layer, and an increased thickness of the layer has been correlated to a better corrosion resistance. Many authors have reported that an ‘intermediate layer’ at the metal oxide interface has a complex structure or/and stochiometry different to that of both the bulk oxide and bulk metal, sometimes claimed to be a suboxide phase. Diffraction evidence has suggested the presence of both cubic ZrO and rhombohedral Zr3O phases, and compositional analysis has revealed similar variations in local oxygen stoichiometry.
We have carried out a systematic investigation of the structure and chemistry of the metal/oxide interface in samples of commercial ZIRLO corroded for times up to 180 days. We have developed new experimental techniques for the study of these interfaces both by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis in the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and by Atom Probe Tomography (APT), and exactly the same samples have been investigated by both techniques. Our results show the development of a clearly defined suboxide layer of stoichiometry close to ZrO, and the subsequent disappearance of this layer at the first of the characteristic ‘breakaway’ transitions in the oxidation kinetics. We can correlate this behaviour with changes in the structure of the oxide layer, and particularly the development of interconnected porosity that links the corroding interface with the aqueous environment. Using high resolution SIMS analysis of isotopically spiked samples we demonstrate the penetration of the oxidising species through these porous outer oxide layers.