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Applying non-accident critical events (NACEs) as an alternative measuring method to assess ship collision risk has become popular in recent years. NACEs has shown temporal features in different waters. This study uses the quaternion ship domain method to identify NACEs around the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent coastal waters from the Automatic Identification System (AIS) data in October 2019. The results indicate that NACEs show different temporal features in estuaries and coastal waters. The relationship between tides, channel types and ships is discussed. In addition, we established a statistical method for the occurrence time of NACEs and the state of tides according to the half-tide level and the nearest time. The outcomes of this study provide a direction for exploring the relationship between NACEs and environmental conditions, which is also instructive for the study of the causes of ship accidents.
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers meet numerous challenges in a high-orbit environment, including weak and discontinuous signal, and time-varying strength. To resolve these issues and enhance reliability, an innovative adaptive vector tracking loop (VTL) scheme is proposed. Non-linear models of the VTL filter are established to calculate code phase and carrier frequency errors accurately. Based on this, a deep analysis has been developed on the measurement noise. To reduce the impact of the interdependent noises among channels in VTL, an adaptive VTL algorithm assisted by the variational Bayesian (VB) learning network is proposed to estimate the measurement noise and maintain the error convergence in the time-varying noise or signal outage conditions. Further, the implementation steps of the adaptive algorithm have been designed in detail. In particular, the carrier-to-noise power ratio (C/N0) estimation method is further employed to update the a prior probability density in case of change of tracking satellite. The simulation results indicate that the proposed VTL scheme with VB algorithm is a promising method to improve the accuracy and reliability of GNSS receivers significantly under a high-orbit degraded signal environment.
This study aims to ascertain the long-term epidemic trends of malaria and evaluates the probability of achieving the eradication goal by 2020 in China. Data on malaria incidence and deaths were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic trends by sex, age and spatial distribution and predictions of malaria were estimated by using Joinpoint and Poisson regressions. From 1950 to 2016, 227 668 374 malaria cases were reported in China, with an annualised average incidence of 337.02 (336.98–337.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)) per 100 000 population. The incidence decreased with an average annual per cent change (AAPC) of −11.4% (−16.6 to −6.0). There were 36 085 malaria deaths, with an annualised average mortality of 0.534 (0.529–0.540) per 1 000 000 population. The mortality decreased with an AAPC of −8.7% (−13.7 to −3.4). The predicted number of malaria cases and deaths for 2020 is 2 562 and 10, respectively, and zero for indigenous cases. The disease burden of malaria dramatically decreased in China. Though, the goal of malaria elimination is realistic by 2020 in China, routine clinical and entomological surveillance should be continually conducted, especially for the cross-border areas and imported malaria cases.
Computer aided tolerancing (CAT) in the automobile industry is implemented by CAD tools. These tools analyze the manufacturability of complex assemblies with rigid single parts in an early stage to reduce the product development time and the cost for hardware prototypes. This paper proposes an approach to implement tolerance simulation for a compliant assembly, which includes manufacturing processes such as clinching, bolting and hemming by applying tolerance simulation tool. The fender- BIW system is simulated as a compliant–rigid system and the simulation model is applied to two production scenarios. The simulation results are compared with real measurement data, which demonstrates the efficacy of using simulation in early production as opposed to prototyping or other methods of design by showing the strong correlation between simulation results and as-built products.
This volume of new essays is the first English-language anthology devoted to Chinese metaphysics. The essays explore the key themes of Chinese philosophy, from pre-Qin to modern times, starting with important concepts such as yin-yang and qi and taking the reader through the major periods in Chinese thought - from the Classical period, through Chinese Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, into the twentieth-century philosophy of Xiong Shili. They explore the major traditions within Chinese philosophy, including Daoism and Mohism, and a broad range of metaphysical topics, including monism, theories of individuation, and the relationship between reality and falsehood. The volume will be a valuable resource for upper-level students and scholars of metaphysics, Chinese philosophy, or comparative philosophy, and with its rich insights into the ethical, social and political dimensions of Chinese society, it will also interest students of Asian studies and Chinese intellectual history.
Emphasis on both moral character and talent in selecting government officials has been an intrinsic part of China's meritocratic tradition. From early on, mainstream Chinese political philosophy, particularly of the Confucian heritage, has promoted such an ideal. This quest, however, has also encountered perennial challenges in practice. In this chapter, we examine in historic context the ideal and practice of integrating moral character with talent in selecting government officials. We show that, despite difficulties, searching for virtuous talent in China today has evolved into the most comprehensive and sophisticated process of its kind in history. The first section of this chapter retrieves the history of China's civil examinations and its problems. The second section investigates recent evolutions of China's public servant recruitment as a stepping stone into officialdom. The third section focuses on China's recent reform in the selection of government officials. Finally, we examine to what extent the reformed system causes corruption in China.
A Brief History of China's Civil Service Examinations
The long and complex history of China's civil service examinations has been studied extensively. We do not intend to present a comprehensive or balanced history here. Building on work by others, we highlight some points and aspects to set the stage for our argument.
The rise of China, along with problems of governance in democratic countries, has reinvigorated the theory of political meritocracy. But what is the theory of political meritocracy and how can it set standards for evaluating political progress (and regress)? To help answer these questions, this volume gathers a series of commissioned research papers from an interdisciplinary group of leading philosophers, historians and social scientists. The result is the first book in decades to examine the rise (or revival) of political meritocracy and what it will mean for political developments in China and the rest of the world. Despite its limitations, meritocracy has contributed much to human flourishing in East Asia and beyond and will continue to do so in the future. This book is essential reading for those who wish to further the debate and perhaps even help to implement desirable forms of political change.