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Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in sensory integration deficits in schizophrenia, yet how glutamatergic function contributes to behavioural impairments and neural activities of sensory integration remains unknown.
Fifty schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls completed behavioural assessments for sensory integration and underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for measuring the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate levels. The correlation between glutamate levels and behavioural sensory integration deficits was examined in each group. A subsample of 20 pairs of patients and controls further completed an audiovisual sensory integration functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activation and task-dependent functional connectivity (FC) were assessed based on fMRI data. Full factorial analyses were performed to examine the Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on fMRI measurements (group differences in correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements) and the correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements within each group.
We found that schizophrenia patients exhibited impaired sensory integration which was positively correlated with ACC glutamate levels. Multimodal analyses showed significantly Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on BOLD activation as well as task-dependent FC in a ‘cortico-subcortical-cortical’ network (including medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, ACC, middle cingulate gyrus, thalamus and caudate) with positive correlations in patients and negative in controls.
Our findings indicate that ACC glutamate influences neural activities in a large-scale network during sensory integration, but the effects have opposite directionality between schizophrenia patients and healthy people. This implicates the crucial role of glutamatergic system in sensory integration processing in schizophrenia.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
A general expression for the method of QXRPD without standards is given in this paper to solve the problem of phase analysis on samples containing a non-crystalline component. Its application to some specific cases is discussed. The experiments have proved successful in the analysis of cement and sand-lime samples. The technique may also be applicable for the analysis of fly-ash, glass, ceramics, and metals. It is especially convenient in the study of kinetics and mechanism of reactions when the chemical composition of all samples does not change, because it is not necessary to know the mass absorption coefficient of samples. In the mathematical treatment of non-linear equations given in this paper, a method called linearized iteration procedure is first presented by the author.
A general least-squares technique for X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis has been developed. The technique can be used to determine single, double, and triple line broadening effects caused by small particle sizes, microstrain, stacking faults, or all three presented in a closed-packed hexagonal nanomaterial. The technique was applied to characterize the microstructure of β-Ni(OH)2, a negative electrode material in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. Double line broadening effects caused by both small crystallite sizes and stacking faults in β-Ni(OH)2 were detected and analyzed. Triple line broadening effects caused simultaneously by small crystallite sizes, microstrain, and stacking faults were detected in β-Ni(OH)2 after activation and charge-discharge cycle tests. The triple line broadening effects were found to be selective and most pronounced for diffraction lines with h−k=3n±1. The broadening effects were larger when l=even, but smaller when l=odd. The shape and the average size of the crystallites, microstrain, and stacking fault probability in β-Ni(OH)2 changed dramatically after activation and charge-discharge cycles. The method was also applied to characterize and investigate the microstructure of nano ZnO materials. Results indicate that no selective broadening appears in the XRD patterns of the nano ZnO materials. The average crystallite sizes were different slightly, and the stacking fault probabilities differed significantly with different dopants.
We fabricated a nanostructured brush by carrying out Ni deposition on a through-channel anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, followed by removal of the AAO skeleton. The AAO was prepared by a two-step anodization process resulting in pore diameter and thickness of 350 nm and 40 μm, respectively. Subsequently, the AAO underwent an electroless deposition involving sensitization, activation, and Ni plating, in conjunction with polyethylene glycol used as the inhibitor to prevent premature closing of pore opening. After deliberate control in relevant parameters, we obtained a conformal Ni overcoat along every pore channel leading to a reduced average pore diameter of 78 nm. Afterward, the sample was immersed in a KOH solution to remove the AAO structure, forming freestanding Ni tubules in a brush configuration. The nanostructured brush revealed considerable enhancement for hydrogen evolution reaction in both current-potential polarization and galvanostatic measurements, which were attributed to the increment in apparent surface area.
Direct conversion of an amorphous carbon (C) film to capsules by gallium (Ga), and nickel and cobalt (NiCo) alloy particles upon heating is investigated in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Capsules are catalyzed in an NH3 atmosphere when the temperature is raised to 1050 °C. High resolution TEM reveals that graphene flakes initially nucleate at the surface of the catalysts, then segregate and transform into faceted multi-shell capsules upon continued heating. The solubility of carbon in the NiCo alloy particles can be differentiated from the solubility of carbon in Ga particles by the thickness of the walls. The C/Ga binary phase in nanoparticles is discussed regarding the formation of thin-walled carbon capsules.
Highly porous Ti and TiZrV getter film coatings have been successfully grown on (100) silicon substrates using the glancing-angle direct-current magnetron sputtering method. The evolution of the microstructures of the Ti and the TiZrV films strongly depends on the sputtering flux rate, surface diffusion rate, nucleation rate, compositions, and self-shadowing geometry of the nuclei on the sputtering flux. The larger the glancing angle, the higher the porosity and specific surface area of the Ti and TiZrV films. The weight-gain results strongly depend on several factors, such as specific surface area, the surface structure of the getter film, the diffusion rate of O in the getter film, the reactivity of Ti, Zr, and V on O, and the order of the stabilities of Ti, Zr, and V oxides on the film’s surface. Porous Ti film absorbs oxygen better than porous TiZrV film does due to its higher surface area and the high diffusion rate of O in Ti films.
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