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We report on a systematic experimental study on the fluorescence spectra produced from a femtosecond laser filament in air under a high electric field. The electric field alone was strong enough to create corona discharge (CD). Fluorescence spectra from neutral and ionic air molecules were measured and compared with pure high-voltage CD and pure laser filamentation (FIL). Among them, high electric field assisted laser FIL produced nitrogen fluorescence more efficiently than either pure CD or pure FIL processes. The nonlinear enhancement of fluorescence from the interaction of the laser filament and corona discharging electric field resulted in a more efficient ionization along the laser filament zone, which was confirmed by the spectroscopic measurement of both ionization-induced fluorescence and plasma-scattered 800 nm laser pulses. This is believed to be the key precursor process for filament-guided discharge.
Based on the theory of coordinate transformation, the design of
electromagnetic (EM) invisible cloak with a uniform thickness is
proposed for arbitrarily polygonal-cylindrical regions. The designed
equal-thickness cloak will force incoming EM waves to propagate
around the inner polygonal region smoothly. Similar to the circular
cloak, such EM waves will return to their original propagation
directions without distorting the waves outside the cloak. Full-wave
simulations are given to validate the design and analysis.
We have successfully proposed a patterned P3HT thin-film transistor with cross-linked PVP as a passivation material which was cured at low temperature. The active P3HT layer was isolated via photolithographic technique and O2 plasma RIE etching process. In this method, the leakage current could be reduced effectively compared with that of non-patterned device. Although the mobility was degraded 40 %, but the on/off ratio was significantly improved by over three orders and also the subthreshold swing was compatible with the amorphous Si-TFTs (∼1.5 V/decade). Moreover, we also employed this low temperature curing PVP (120 0C) films as the gate dielectrics which exhibited excellent insulating property with high on/off ratio 1.58×104 and good subthreshold swing 1.66 V/decade.
Strenuous exercise is known to induce oxidative stress leading to the generation of free radicals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of lycopene, an antioxidant nutrient, at a relatively low dose (2·6 mg/kg per d) and a relatively high dose (7·8 mg/kg per d) on the antioxidant status of blood and skeletal muscle tissues in rats after exhaustive exercise. Rats were divided into six groups: sedentary control (C); sedentary control with low-dose lycopene (CLL); sedentary control with high-dose lycopene (CHL); exhaustive exercise (E); exhaustive exercise with low-dose lycopene (ELL); exhaustive exercise with high-dose lycopene (EHL). After 30 d, the rats in the three C groups were killed without exercise, but the rats in the three E groups were killed immediately after an exhaustive running test on a motorised treadmill. The results showed that xanthine oxidase (XO) activities of plasma and muscle, and muscular myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in group E were significantly increased compared with group C. Compared with group E, the elevations of XO and MPO activities of muscle were significantly decreased in group EHL. The malondialdehyde concentrations of plasma and tissues in group E were significantly increased by 72 and 114 %, respectively, compared with those in group C. However, this phenomenon was prevented in rats of the ELL and EHL groups. There was no significant difference in the GSH concentrations of erythrocytes in each group; however, exhaustive exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the GSH content of muscle. In conclusion, these results suggested that lycopene protected muscle tissue from oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise.
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