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Excited delirium, which has been defined as combativeness, agitation, and altered sensorium, requires immediate treatment in prehospital or emergency department (ED) settings for the safety of both patients and caregivers. Prehospital ketamine use is prevalent, although the evidence on safety and efficacy is limited. Many patients with excited delirium are intoxicated with illicit substances. This investigation explores whether patients treated with prehospital ketamine for excited delirium with concomitant substance intoxication have higher rates of subsequent intubation in the ED compared to those without confirmed substance usage.
Over 28 months at two large community hospitals, all medical records were retrospectively searched for all patients age 18 years or greater with prehospital ketamine intramuscular (IM) administration for excited delirium and identified illicit and prescription substance co-ingestions. Trained abstractors collected demographic characteristics, history of present illness (HPI), urine drug screens (UDS), alcohol levels, and noted additional sedative administrations. Substance intoxication was determined by UDS and alcohol positivity or negativity, as well as physician HPI. Patients without toxicological testing or documentation of substance intoxication, or who may have tested positive due to ED sedation, were excluded from relevant analyses. Subsequent ED intubation was the primary pre-specified outcome. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare variables.
Among 86 patients given prehospital ketamine IM for excited delirium, baseline characteristics including age, ketamine dose, and body mass index were similar between those who did or did not undergo intubation. Men had higher intubation rates. Patients testing positive for alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ecstasy, marijuana, opiates, and synthetic cathinones, both bath salts and flakka, had similar rates of intubation compared to those negative for these substances. Of 27 patients with excited delirium and concomitant cocaine intoxication, nine (33%) were intubated compared with four of 50 (8%) without cocaine intoxication, yielding a 5.75 OR (95%, CI 1.57 to 21.05; P = .009).
Patients treated with ketamine IM for excited delirium with concomitant cocaine intoxication had a statistically significant 5.75-fold increased rate of subsequent intubation in the ED. Amongst other substances, no other trends with intubation were noted, but further study is warranted.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia is a growing problem in the Great Plains region of Canada and the United States (U.S.). Resistance to up to four herbicide sites of action, including photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitor glyphosate have been reported in many areas of this region. Despite being present in the U.S. since 1993/1994, auxinic-HR kochia is a recent and growing phenomenon in Canada. This study was designed to characterize (a) the level of resistance and (b) patterns of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in 12 putative auxinic-HR kochia populations from western Canada. The incidence of dicamba-resistant individuals ranged among populations from 0% to 85%, while fluroxypyr-resistant individuals ranged from 0% to 45%. In whole-plant dose-response bioassays, the populations exhibited up to 6.5-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 51.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr based on visible injury 28 days after application. Based on plant survival estimates, the populations exhibited up to 3.7-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 72.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr. Multiple patterns of synthetic auxin resistance were observed, where one population from Cypress County, Alberta was resistant to dicamba but not fluroxypyr, while another from Rocky View County, Alberta was resistant to fluroxypyr but not dicamba based on single-dose population screening and dose-response bioassays. These results suggest that multiple mechanisms may confer resistance to dicamba and/or fluroxypyr in Canadian kochia populations. Further research is warranted to determine these mechanisms. Farmers are urged to adopt proactive non-chemical weed management tools in an effort to preserve efficacy of the remaining herbicide options available for control of HR kochia.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) affects 10-20% of women with breast cancer and is biologically more aggressive than other subtypes. The novel compound we have developed, DL7076, would give clinicians a vital strategy to improve the commonly used cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) regimen in the treatment of TNBC. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this research project is to develop a novel compound which can activate both 1) the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and subsequently enhance the CYP2B6-mediated activation of CPA, and 2) the nuclear factor erythroid- related factor-2 (Nrf2) leading to the cardiomyocyte protection from DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following the identification of the compound candidate, DL7076 was evaluated for tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2 using qPCR, western blot analysis, and luciferase reporter assays.
Further, we have developed a multicellular coculture model incorporating human primary hepatocytes for metabolism, TNBC spheroids as the target, and cardiomyocytes as a side target of DOX. We have investigated the anticancer effects of CPA/DOX on TNBC cells and the toxic effects on cardiomyocytes with/without a CAR-Nrf2 activator, in a multicellular environment where hepatic metabolism is well-retained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that our dual activator of CAR and Nrf2, DL7076, exhibits tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2. Inclusion of DL7076 in combination with the CPA/DOX regimen improves anticancer efficacy, through the subsequent increase in the formation of the active CPA metabolite. With the addition of DL7076, DOX-mediated off-target cardiotoxicity was markedly reduced.
Lastly, utilizing the novel coculture system with human primary hepatocytes, TNBC spheroids, and cardiomyocytes, the inclusion of DL7076 to the CPA/DOX regimen shows decreased spheroid viability and improved cardiomyocyte viability and function. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that DL7076 can facilitate DOX/CPA containing regimens by increasing CAR-mediated metabolism and subsequent CPA bioactivation while selectively protecting cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity. This research is expected to translate our basic scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for women with TNBC.
Nearly three times as many people detained in a jail have a serious mental illness (SMI) when compared to community samples. Once an individual with SMI gets involved in the criminal justice system, they are more likely than the general population to stay in the system, face repeated incarcerations, and return to prison more quickly when compared to their nonmentally ill counterparts.
The United States’ incarceration rate of its national population is the highest in the world. The percentage of incarcerated individuals with a mental illness is substantial, with 10% to 15% of inmates suffering from a serious mental illness. Two-thirds of sentenced jail inmates met criteria for drug dependence or abuse. Many inmates experience both mental illness and a substance use disorder as co-occurring conditions.
The Cal-DSH Diversion Guidelines provide 10 general guidelines that jurisdictions should consider when developing diversion programs for individuals with a serious mental illness (SMI) who become involved in the criminal justice system. Screening for SMI in a jail setting is reviewed. In addition, important treatment interventions for SMI and substance use disorders are highlighted with the need to address criminogenic risk factors highlighted.
To investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using whole-genome sequencing.
Investigation of MSSA epidemiology in a NICU.
Single-center, level IV NICU.
Universal S. aureus screening was done using a single swab obtained from the anterior nares, axilla, and groin area of infants in the NICU on a weekly basis. Core genome multilocus sequence type (cgMLST) analysis was performed on MSSA isolates detected over 1 year (2018–2019).
In total, 68 MSSA-colonized infants were identified, and cgMLSTs of 67 MSSA isolates were analyzed. Overall, we identified 11 cgMLST isolate groups comprising 39 isolates (58%), with group sizes ranging from 2 to 10 isolates, and 28 isolates (42%) were unrelated to each other or any of the isolate groups. Cases of infants colonized by MSSA were scattered throughout the 1-year study period, and isolates belonging to the same cgMLST group were typically detected contemporaneously, over a few weeks or a few months. Overall, 13 infants (19.7%) developed MSSA infections: bacteremia (n = 3), wound infection (n = 5), conjunctivitis (n = 4), and cellulitis (n = 1). We detected no association between these clinically manifest infections and specific cgMLST groups.
Although MSSA isolates in infants in a NICU showed high diversity, most were related to other isolates, albeit within small groups. cgMLST facilitates an understanding of the complex transmission dynamics of MSSA in NICUs, and these data can be used to inform better control strategies.
Although learning second language phonology is a difficult task, orthographic input may support the learning of difficult sound contrasts through a process known as orthographic facilitation. We extended this research by examining the effects of orthographic input together with individual differences in three different phonological learning processes, namely, the production of, perception of, and memorization of words containing three Marathi phonemic contrasts (i.e., [k-kh], , and ) by native English speakers. Moreover, because the  and  contrasts were particularly challenging in previous auditory training studies (e.g., Polka, 1991), we used cross-modal training in order to enhance learning by pairing auditory perception tasks with visual orthographic information, the amplification of relevant acoustic cues, and proprioceptive descriptions to the articulation of target phonemes. Results showed significant learning from the pre- to the posttest across tasks and contrasts, supporting the effectiveness of cross-modal training. Furthermore, incongruent orthographic input could inhibit perception, and orthographic input generally supported memory for word pronunciations. Moreover, individual differences regarding phonological skills and nonspeech auditory discrimination predicted participants’ success in different phonological learning processes. These results provide a detailed picture of the complexity between different aspects of second language phonological learning and cross-modal training.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) calls for the inclusion of office-based pediatricians in disaster preparedness and response efforts. However, there is little research about disaster preparedness and response on the part of pediatric practices. This study describes the readiness of pediatric practices to respond to disaster and delineates factors associated with increased preparedness.
An AAP survey was distributed to members to assess the state of pediatric offices in readiness for disaster. Potential predictor variables used in chi-square analysis included community setting, primary employment setting, area of practice, and previous disaster experience.
Three-quarters (74%) of respondents reported some degree of disaster preparedness (measured by 6 indicators including written plans and maintaining stocks of supplies), and approximately half (54%) reported response experience (measured by 3 indicators, including volunteering to serve in disaster areas). Respondents who reported disaster preparation efforts were more likely to have signed up for disaster response efforts, and vice versa.
These results contribute information about the state of pediatric physician offices and can aid in developing strategies for augmenting the inclusion of office-based pediatricians in community preparedness and response efforts.
There is a continual need for invasive plant science to develop approaches for cost-effectively benefiting native over nonnative species in dynamic management and biophysical contexts, including within predominantly nonnative plant landscapes containing only small patches of native plants. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a minimal-input strategy for enlarging native species patches within a nonnative plant matrix. In Pecos National Historical Park, New Mexico, USA, we identified 40 native perennial grass patches within a matrix of the nonnative annual forb kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott]. We mechanically cut B. scoparia in a 2-m-wide ring surrounding the perimeters of half the native grass patches (with the other half as uncut controls) and measured change in native grass patch size (relative to pretreatment) for 3 yr. Native grass patches around which B. scoparia was cut grew quickly the first posttreatment year and by the third year had increased in size four times more than control patches. Treated native grass patches expanded by an average of 25 m2, from 4 m2 in October 2015 before treatment to 29 m2 in October 2018. The experiment occurred during a dry period, conditions that should favor B. scoparia and contraction of the native grasses, suggesting that the observed increase in native grasses occurred despite suboptimal climatic conditions. Strategically treating around native patches to enlarge them over time showed promise as a minimal-input technique for increasing the proportion of the landscape dominated by native plants.
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world. With a substantial number of inmates diagnosed with mental illness, substance use, or both, various diversion strategies have been developed to help decrease and avoid criminalization of individuals with mental illness. This article focuses primarily on the first three Sequential Intercept Model intercept points as related to jail diversion and reviews types of diversion programs, research outcomes for diversion programs, and important components that contribute to successful diversion.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Takeaway Masterclass, a three-hour training session delivered to staff of independent takeaway food outlets that promoted healthy cooking practices and menu options.
A mixed-methods study design. All participating food outlets provided progress feedback at 6 weeks post-intervention. Baseline and 6-week post-intervention observational and self-reported data were collected in half of participating takeaway food outlets.
North East England.
Independent takeaway food outlet owners and managers.
Staff from eighteen (10 % of invited) takeaway food outlets attended the training; attendance did not appear to be associated with the level of deprivation of food outlet location. Changes made by staff that required minimal effort or cost to the business were the most likely to be implemented and sustained. Less popular changes included using products that are difficult (or expensive) to source from suppliers, or changes perceived to be unpopular with customers.
The Takeaway Masterclass appears to be a feasible and acceptable intervention for improving cooking practices and menu options in takeaway food outlets for those who attended the training. Further work is required to increase participation and retention and explore effectiveness, paying particular attention to minimising adverse inequality effects.
To summarize risk factors for Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized pediatric patients as determined by previous observational studies.
Meta-analysis and systematic review.
Studies evaluating risk factors for CDI in pediatric inpatients were eligible for inclusion.
We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE for subject headings and text words related to CDI and pediatrics from 1975 to 2017. Two of the investigators independently screened studies, extracted and compiled data, assessed study quality, and performed the meta-analysis.
Of the 2,033 articles screened, 14 studies reporting 10,531,669 children met the inclusion criteria. Prior antibiotic exposure (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–3.52) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07–1.64) were associated with an increased risk of CDI in children. Subgroup analyses using studies reporting only adjusted results suggested that prior antibiotic exposure is not a significant risk factor for CDI. H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.31–5.98) and that female gender (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74–1.03) did not play a significant role as a risk factor for developing CDI.
Prior antibiotic exposure appears to be an important risk factor for CDI based on the combined analysis but not significant using adjusted studies. PPI use was associated with an increased risk of CDI. Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics and PPIs may help reduce the risk of CDI in this vulnerable population.
To evaluate whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a molecular typing tool for MRSA outbreak investigation.
Investigation of MRSA colonization/infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over 3 years (2014–2017).
Single-center level IV NICU.
NICU infants and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Infants were screened for MRSA using a swab of the anterior nares, axilla, and groin, initially by targeted (ring) screening, and later by universal weekly screening. Clinical cultures were collected as indicated. HCWs were screened once using swabs of the anterior nares. MRSA isolates were typed using WGS with core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Colonized and infected infants and HCWs were decolonized. Control strategies included reinforcement of hand hygiene, use of contact precautions, cohorting, enhanced environmental cleaning, and remodeling of the NICU.
We identified 64 MRSA-positive infants: 53 (83%) by screening and 11 (17%) by clinical cultures. Of 85 screened HCWs, 5 (6%) were MRSA positive. WGS of MRSA isolates identified 2 large clusters (WGS groups 1 and 2), 1 small cluster (WGS group 3), and 8 unrelated isolates. PFGE failed to distinguish WGS group 2 and 3 isolates. WGS groups 1 and 2 were codistributed over time. HCW MRSA isolates were primarily in WGS group 1. New infant MRSA cases declined after implementation of the control interventions.
We identified 2 contemporaneous MRSA outbreaks alongside sporadic cases in a NICU. WGS was used to determine strain relatedness at a higher resolution than PFGE and was useful in guiding efforts to control MRSA transmission.
The goal of this study was to assess the utility of serial electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of paediatric Marfan patients.
Children ⩽18 years who met the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome and received a 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram within a 3-month period were included. Controls were matched by age, body surface area, gender, race, and ethnicity, and consisted of patients assessed in clinic with a normal cardiac evaluation. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic data were collected.
A total of 45 Marfan patients (10.8 [2.4–17.1] years) and 37 controls (12.8 [1.3–17.1] years) were included. Left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy were more frequently present on 12-lead electrocardiogram of Marfan patients compared with controls (12 (27%) versus 0 (0%), p<0.001; and 8 (18%) versus 0 (0%), p=0.008, respectively); however, only two patients with left atrial enlargement on 12-lead electrocardiogram were confirmed to have left atrial enlargement by echocardiogram, and one patient had mild left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram, not appreciated on 12-lead electrocardiogram. QTc interval was longer in Marfan patients compared with controls (427±16 versus 417±22 ms, p=0.03), with four Marfan patients demonstrating borderline prolonged QTc intervals for gender.
While Marfan patients exhibited a higher frequency of left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy on 12-lead electrocardiograms compared with controls, these findings were not supported by echocardiography. Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of asymptomatic paediatric Marfan patients may be more appropriate for a subgroup of Marfan patients only, specifically those with prolonged QTc interval at their baseline visit.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Pale swallowwort and black swallowwort are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. A multiyear seedbank study was initiated in fall 2011 to assess annual emergence of seedlings and longevity of seeds of pale swallowwort and black swallowwort at four different burial depths (0, 1, 5, and 10 cm) over 4 yr. One hundred swallowwort seeds were sown in seed pans buried in individual pots, and emerged seedlings were counted and removed from May through September each year. A subset of seed pans was retrieved annually in October, and recovered seeds were counted and tested for viability. The majority of seedling emergence occurred during the first year (92% in 2012), and no new seedlings emerged in the third (2014) or fourth (2015) years. Pale swallowwort had relatively poor emergence at sowing depths of 0 cm (11%), 5 cm (6%), and 10 cm (0.05%—only one seedling), while 37% of pale swallowwort seeds emerged at 1 cm. The larger-seeded black swallowwort was more successful, with two-thirds of all sown seeds emerging at depths of 1 cm (71%) and 5 cm (66%), and 26% emerging at 10 cm. Only 16% of the surface-sown black swallowwort emerged. A large portion of the seeds that germinated at 10 cm, as well as at 5 cm for pale swallowwort, died before reaching the soil surface. Of filled seeds that were recovered in 2012 (black swallowwort at the 0-cm depth), 66% were viable. No viable seeds were recovered after the second growing season. Seeds recovered following the third year had become too deteriorated to accurately assess. Swallowwort seeds do not appear to survive more than 2 yr in the soil, at least in our experiment, suggesting that the elimination of seed production over 3 yr will exhaust the local seedbank. Seeds would need to be buried at least 10 cm for pale swallowwort but more than 10 cm for black swallowwort to prevent seedling emergence. Burial of swallowwort seeds as a management strategy may, however, only be practical in natural areas where high swallowwort densities occur.