To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies have shown that the intake of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) improves select markers of cardiovascular health in adults with cardiovascular risk factors; however, whether these improvements can be observed in at-risk adolescents is unknown. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study enrolled twenty-five overweight or obese males, aged 14–18 years, to consume 50 g of a FDSP or a control powder, daily for 1 week. Before and after each test period, measures of microvascular function, plasma nitrate/nitrite, platelet reactivity and blood lipids were collected at baseline and acutely 1 h after FDSP intake. Acute plasma nitrate/nitrite levels increased 1 h after consuming the FDSP during Study Visit 1 before daily FDSP intake (P<0·001) and during Study Visit 2 after 1 week of FDSP intake (P<0·001) compared with control powder intake. As a group, fasting nitrate/nitrite levels did not significantly change after 1 week of control or FDSP intake. However, for those individuals where fasting nitrate levels increased after short-term FDSP intake compared with controls, an increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) was observed (P=0·014), whereas RHI was unchanged in those individuals who did not have a significant increase in nitrate (P=0·396). Taken together, these data support the concept that strawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males.
Cu is an essential nutrient for man, but can be toxic if intakes are too high. In sensitive populations, marginal over- or under-exposure can have detrimental effects. Malnourished children, the elderly, and pregnant or lactating females may be susceptible for Cu deficiency. Cu status and exposure in the population can currently not be easily measured, as neither plasma Cu nor plasma cuproenzymes reflect Cu status precisely. Some blood markers (such as ceruloplasmin) indicate severe Cu depletion, but do not inversely respond to Cu excess, and are not suitable to indicate marginal states. A biomarker of Cu is needed that is sensitive to small changes in Cu status, and that responds to Cu excess as well as deficiency. Such a marker will aid in monitoring Cu status in large populations, and will help to avoid chronic health effects (for example, liver damage in chronic toxicity, osteoporosis, loss of collagen stability, or increased susceptibility to infections in deficiency). The advent of high-throughput technologies has enabled us to screen for potential biomarkers in the whole proteome of a cell, not excluding markers that have no direct link to Cu. Further, this screening allows us to search for a whole group of proteins that, in combination, reflect Cu status. The present review emphasises the need to find sensitive biomarkers for Cu, examines potential markers of Cu status already available, and discusses methods to identify a novel suite of biomarkers.
Commerce, Complexity, and Evolution is a significant contribution to the paradigm - straddling economics, finance, marketing, and management - which acknowledges that commercial systems are evolutionary, and must therefore be analysed using evolutionary tools. Evolutionary systems display complicated behaviours which are to a significant degree generated endogenously, rather than being solely the product of exogenous shocks, hence the conjunction of complexity with evolution. This volume considers a wide range of systems, from the entire economy at one extreme to the behaviour of single markets at the other. The papers are united by methodologies which at their core are evolutionary, though the techniques cover a wide range, from philosophical discourse to differential equations, genetic algorithms, multi-agent simulations and cellular automata. Issues considered include the dynamics of debt-deflation, stock management in a complex environment, interactions between consumers and its effect upon market behaviour, and nonlinear methods to profit from financial market volatility.
Commerce, Complexity, and Evolution is a significant contribution to the new paradigm straddling economics, finance, marketing, and management, which acknowledges that commercial systems are evolutionary systems and must therefore be analyzed with evolutionary tools. Evolutionary systems also display complicated behaviors that are, to a significant degree, generated endogenously, rather than being solely the product of exogenous shocks, hence the conjunction of complexity with evolution. The papers in this volume consider a wide range of systems, from the entire economy at one extreme to the behavior of single markets at the other. The authors consider commerce from a variety of perspectives, ranging from marketing to macroeconomics. The papers are united by methodologies that, at their core, are evolutionary, although the techniques cover a wide range, from philosophical discourse to differential equations, genetic algorithms, multiagent simulations, and cellular automata. Some of the many issues considered include the dynamics of debt deflation, stock management in a complex environment, interactions among consumers and their effect on market behavior, and nonlinear methods to profit from financial market volatility. Because intellectual analysis is itself an evolutionary process, several of the papers critically analyze this newly emerging approach to understanding humankind's most complex invention, its social system.
The papers are a refereed, revised, and updated subset of those first presented to the twelfth conference in the series International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics. The conference was held at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, in 1996, and attracted participants from Australia, Japan, Europe, and the United States.
This volume is the twelfth in a series, called International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics. The proceedings series is under the general editorship of William Barnett. Individual volumes in the series generally have coeditors, who differ for each volume, as the topics of the conferences change each year. The co-organizers of the twelfth symposium, which produced the current proceedings volume, were Carl Chiarella, Steve Keen, Bob Marks, and Hermann Schnabl. The coeditors of this proceedings volume are William Barnett, Carl Chiarella, Steve Keen, Bob Marks, and Hermann Schnabl.
The topic of the conference and focus of this book is “Commerce, Complexity, and Evolution: Complexity and Evolutionary Analysis in Economics, Finance, Marketing, and Management.” The volume showcases the many facets of the new evolutionary approach to analyzing and modeling commercial systems. The collection is distinguished by the wide range of methodologies presented, ranging from philosophical discourse at one extreme to multiagent modeling at the other. The volume is a significant contribution to the new paradigm acknowledging that commercial systems are evolutionary systems and must therefore be analyzed by use of evolutionary tools. This new paradigm straddles economics, finance, marketing, and management.
The conference that produced this volume was held at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, in 1996, and attracted participants from Australia, Japan, Europe, and the United States. The conference was sponsored by the Faculty of Commerce at the University of New South Wales. Many of the prior volumes in this series were sponsored by the IC2 Institute at the University of Texas at Austin, and some have been cosponsored by the RGK Foundation.