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This review summarizes what is currently known about herbicide resistance in Bromus spp. worldwide. Additional information on the biology and genetics of Bromus spp. is provided to further the understanding of resistance evolution and dispersal of the different species. Cases of herbicide resistance have been confirmed in Bromus catharticus Vahl., Bromus commutatus Schrad. (syn.: Bromus racemosus L.), Bromus diandrus Roth, Bromus japonicus Thunb. (syn.: Bromus arvensis L.), Bromus madritensis L., Bromus rigidus Roth (syn.: Bromus diandrus Roth ssp. diandrus), Bromus rubens L., Bromus secalinus L., Bromus sterilis L., and Bromus tectorum L. in 11 countries. Bromus spp. populations have evolved cross- and multiple resistance to six herbicide sites of action: acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, acetolactate synthase, photosystem II, very-long-chain fatty-acid, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors. Resistance mechanisms varied from target-site to non–target site or a combination of both. Bromus spp. are generally highly self-pollinated, but outcrossing can occur at low levels in some species. Bromus spp. have different ploidy levels, ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 14) to duodecaploid (2n = 12x = 84). Herbicide resistance in Bromus spp. is a global issue, and the spread of herbicide-resistance alleles primarily occurs via seed-mediated gene flow. However, the transfer of herbicide-resistance alleles via pollen-mediated gene flow is possible.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are widely grown throughout the United States and Canada. These crop-trait technologies can enhance weed management and therefore can be an important component of integrated weed management (IWM) programs. Concomitantly, evolution of HR weed populations has become ubiquitous in agricultural areas where HR crops are grown. Nevertheless, crop cultivars with new or combined (stacked) HR traits continue to be developed and commercialized. This review, based on a symposium held at the Western Society of Weed Science annual meeting in 2021, examines the impact of HR crops on HR weed management in the U.S. Great Plains, U.S. Pacific Northwest, and the Canadian Prairies over the past 25 yr and their past and future contributions to IWM. We also provide an industry perspective on the future of HR crop development and the role of HR crops in resistance management. Expanded options for HR traits in both major and minor crops are expected. With proper stewardship, HR crops can reduce herbicide-use intensity and help reduce selection pressure on weed populations. However, their proper deployment in cropping systems must be carefully planned by considering a diverse crop rotation sequence with multiple HR and non-HR crops and maximizing crop competition to effectively manage HR weed populations. Based on past experiences in the cultivation of HR crops and associated herbicide use in the western United States and Canada, HR crops have been important determinants of both the selection and management of HR weeds.
Weed control in tree nut orchards is a year-round challenge for growers that is particularly intense during winter through summer as a result of competition and interference with management and harvest operations. A common weed control program consists of an application of a winter PRE and POST herbicide mixture, followed by a desiccation treatment in early spring and before harvest. Because most spring and summer treatments depend on a limited number of foliar-applied herbicides, summer-germinating species and/or herbicide-resistant biotypes become troublesome. Previous research has established effective PRE herbicide programs targeting winter glyphosate-resistant weeds. However, more recently, growers have reported difficulties in controlling several summer-germinating grass weeds with documented or suspected resistance to the spring and summer POST herbicide programs. In this context, research was conducted to evaluate a sequential PRE approach to control winter- and summer-germinating orchard weeds. Eight field experiments were conducted in tree nut orchards to evaluate the efficacy of common winter herbicide programs and a sequential herbicide program for control of a key summer grass weed species. In the sequential-application strategy, three foundational herbicide programs applied in the winter were either mixed with pendimethalin, followed with pendimethalin in March, or applied as a split application of pendimethalin in both winter and spring. Results indicate that the addition of pendimethalin enhanced summer grass weed control throughout the crop growing season by up to 31%. Applying all or part of the pendimethalin in the spring improved control of the summer grass weed junglerice by up to 49%. The lower rate of pendimethalin applied in the spring performed as well as the high rate in the winter, suggesting opportunities for reducing herbicide inputs. Tailoring sequential herbicide programs to address specific weed challenges can be a viable strategy for improving orchard weed control without increasing herbicide use in some situations.
Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] is a troublesome weedy species in many regions of California. Its control has been chiefly dependent on herbicides due to their effectiveness and practicality and, as result, herbicide-resistant populations have been selected. Poor control of a population of L. multiflorum with paraquat was recently reported in a prune orchard in Hamilton City, CA. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize the response of this population to several POST herbicides, study the mechanisms of resistance, and investigate alternative chemical management options in tree crops. A known susceptible (S) and the suspected resistant population (PRHC) were subjected to greenhouse dose–response experiments with clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, paraquat, pyroxsulam, rimsulfuron, and sethoxydim. A 310-bp fragment of the EPSPS gene containing position 106 was sequenced from PRHC and S. Field experiments were carried out in a prune orchard with PRE herbicides commonly used by perennial crop growers in California. Greenhouse dose–response experiments confirmed that PRHC is resistant to paraquat, as well as multiply resistant to clethodim and glyphosate. The EPSPS gene of PRHC is heterozygous for glyphosate resistance at position 106, where one allele exhibited proline substituted by serine and the other by alanine. Field experiments with PRE herbicides indicated that tank mixes containing indaziflam and flumioxazin can provide adequate L. multiflorum control up to 150 d after treatment. Poor weed management practices, such as overreliance on a single site of action, have frequently been associated with the selection of herbicide-resistant L. multiflorum populations around the world, and adequate herbicide-resistance management programs are necessary for growers to maintain economic sustainability even after evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds in their fields.
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