To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) with unprotected exposures to aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of infection with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A retrospective review at an academic medical center demonstrated an infection rate of <1% among HCP involved in AGPs without a respirator and/or eye protection.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Multicentre research databases can provide insights into healthcare processes to improve outcomes and make practice recommendations for novel approaches. Effective audits can establish a framework for reporting research efforts, ensuring accurate reporting, and spearheading quality improvement. Although a variety of data auditing models and standards exist, barriers to effective auditing including costs, regulatory requirements, travel, and design complexity must be considered.
Materials and methods:
The Congenital Cardiac Research Collaborative conducted a virtual data training initiative and remote source data verification audit on a retrospective multicentre dataset. CCRC investigators across nine institutions were trained to extract and enter data into a robust dataset on patients with tetralogy of Fallot who required neonatal intervention. Centres provided de-identified source files for a randomised 10% patient sample audit. Key auditing variables, discrepancy types, and severity levels were analysed across two study groups, primary repair and staged repair.
Of the total 572 study patients, data from 58 patients (31 staged repairs and 27 primary repairs) were source data verified. Amongst the 1790 variables audited, 45 discrepancies were discovered, resulting in an overall accuracy rate of 97.5%. High accuracy rates were consistent across all CCRC institutions ranging from 94.6% to 99.4% and were reported for both minor (1.5%) and major discrepancies type classifications (1.1%).
Findings indicate that implementing a virtual multicentre training initiative and remote source data verification audit can identify data quality concerns and produce a reliable, high-quality dataset. Remote auditing capacity is especially important during the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Financial literacy is a core life skill for participating in modern society. But how many of us have been educated about money; the importance of budgeting and saving for a rainy day; how bank accounts and debt work and when it makes sense to save for a pension? Our brief research to date indicates a shockingly low level of financial literacy in the general population. And, it does not look like this will get better soon; regarding improving financial literacy, the Financial Services Authority stated in 2003 that “Never has the need been so great or so urgent”. And yet many children will go through school without an hour spent studying financial literacy. Furthermore, efforts to improve financial literacy at older ages are either non-existent or piecemeal at best.
The consequences of poor financial literacy are especially damaging for vulnerable people. Vulnerable groups of people are most at risk of making poor financial decisions throughout their lives, which has negative consequences for saving, home ownership, debt levels, retirement and financial inclusion. In this paper, we consider various mechanisms to protect such financial customers, whilst recognising that improving financial literacy is not a silver bullet to improve customer outcomes from financial products.
Financial literacy cannot be brought to a point where the public can understand many financial products without support and advice. But surely, awareness of basic financial literacy principles can be raised, including the most important: when to seek support and advice before undertaking important financial decisions. The paper suggests some key principles for financial literacy and will also consider methods and tools to allow the public to access much-needed support and advice.
The availability of large healthcare datasets offers the opportunity for researchers to navigate the traditional clinical and translational science research stages in a nonlinear manner. In particular, data scientists can harness the power of large healthcare datasets to bridge from preclinical discoveries (T0) directly to assessing population-level health impact (T4). A successful bridge from T0 to T4 does not bypass the other stages entirely; rather, effective team science makes a direct progression from T0 to T4 impactful by incorporating the perspectives of researchers from every stage of the clinical and translational science research spectrum. In this exemplar, we demonstrate how effective team science overcame challenges and, ultimately, ensured success when a diverse team of researchers worked together, using healthcare big data to test population-level substance use disorder (SUD) hypotheses generated from preclinical rodent studies. This project, called Advancing Substance use disorder Knowledge using Big Data (ASK Big Data), highlights the critical roles that data science expertise and effective team science play in quickly translating preclinical research into public health impact.
Farmers’ access to reliable information is crucial to improving rural livelihoods, food security, and national economies in West Africa. This paper discusses the dynamics of accessing and using agricultural learning videos from commercial channels, vs project and non-project channels in Benin and Mali. Using combinations of different models to assess the effectiveness of agricultural extension programs, the findings showed that farmers were motivated to pay for videos and watch them by themselves, without facilitation. Farmers who watched the videos through project support have also continued to watch on their own if the videos are of interest to them. Nevertheless, farmers were less motivated in the learning process when they received the Digital Video Disc (DVD) free and without support to watch them. We also found that the distribution of learning videos through commercial channels reaches more serious users and increases farmers’ self-determination for learning, and farmers are more motivated to provide feedback than viewers who receive DVDs for free or via project support, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), or farmer organizations. Although buying a DVD is an individual action, they like to watch the videos in groups. After buying the DVD, about 43% of respondent borrowed DVD players and one person in five bought a DVD player to watch the videos. Efforts to promote improved technologies need to expand beyond the conventional focus on research and extension services. Support to agricultural technology dissemination must go beyond assistance to smallholder farmers and NGOs (practical implication). As the private sector has a role to play, both in making technologies available and in teaching farmers how to use them, their contribution would create space for innovation (theoretical implication). Our findings suggest that successful development intervention programs can be sell audiovisual material to farmers, who will use it proactively.
Introduction: Most emergency departments (ED) in Canada have a population of high frequency users that present to the ED on a regular basis. These patients are well described in the literature and typically defined by a frequency of 8-10 visits/year. In Thunder Bay, Ontario we have a significant population of patients that present more often that we have termed “super-users”. These patients often are typically from a vulnerable population with multiple co-morbidities and a high mortality rate. Although their risk for poor health outcomes is well recognized, both the chronicity and complexity of their symptoms often contributes to diagnostic dilemmas. The decision to order a computed tomography (CT) scan can be a difficult balance between ruling out life threatening diagnoses and exposing the patient to excessive radiation. Our objective was to describe how often these super-users of the ED received a CT scan and what types of imaging were completed. Methods: The Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre is a geographically isolated hospital in Northwestern Ontario with the next closest hospital based CT scanner greater than 300 km away. Based on previous literature and our preliminary scoping of the super-user group, we have identified a minimum of 25 visits as the threshold. A retrospective chart review was conducted for the year 2017 using our electronic medical record. Patient demographic data was collected along with the type and number of CT scans into a standardized collection tool. Results: Our preliminary results showed that our total population of super-users was 75 patients with an average of 32 visits to the ED per year. A total of 76% of the patients had a CT scan completed at least once. On average these patients have a CT during 10% of their visits with head CT comprising 50% of the imaging and abdominal/pelvis imaging comprising another 45%. For 20% of these super-users, they had CTs on 20% of their visits. From this population, only 10% of the patients had surgery in 2017 while 7% of visits required admission to hospital. The most common diagnoses for these patient visits relate to mental health/addictions, gastrointestinal complaints and infection. Conclusion: This study has shown that a significant number of our super-user population are receiving multiple CTs. Our next step is collect data on individual radiation doses and calculate exposure risks. We hope to inform policy and decision-makers who are developing programs to treat the underlying cause of their high resource use.
Introduction: All emergency departments (EDs) across Canada can identify a group of high frequency users, which are typically defined in the literature as eight to ten visits per year. Although frequent users of the ED are well-studied in the literature, there is little published in terms of identifying the “super-user” group who present to the ED much more often than 10 visits per year. Faced with multiple co-morbidities and a high mortality rate, the ED is often the most appropriate environment to manage this population. In order to inform future initiatives to improve health outcomes, we aimed to identify the specific characteristics of this super-user group. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted using the electronic medical record from the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre to identify patients who had at least 25 visits in the year 2017. A total of 75 patients presented to the ED greater than 25 times in 2017. The following data was then collected on each individual patient: demographic characteristics including age, gender, address, access to a primary care provider. In addition, we collected date, time, diagnoses at each visit, admission rate and surgical interventions. Results: Our preliminary results reveal this population presents to the ED on average 32 times per year. The population is 53% male. Most have a private address and half have a primary care provider for all 2017 with one quarter having a primary care provider for part of the year. The percentage of visits for infections was 30%, mental health and addictions presentations comprised 28% of the visits, with gastrointestinal and cardiac visits comprising a total 22% of the visits. Approximately 7% of visits required admission to hospital, and the average length of stay was 5 days. Conclusion: Super-users of the ED are a unique population that are typically well connected with primary care and have a very low admission and surgical rate. The most common reasons for visit are infections and mental health and addictions. The next steps include collecting mortality data. This data should be used to inform ED and community initiatives aimed at improved health outcomes for this population.
We present the analysis of global sympagic primary production (PP) from 300 years of pre-industrial and historical simulations of the E3SMv1.1-BGC model. The model includes a novel, eight-element sea ice biogeochemical component, MPAS-Seaice zbgc, which is resolved in three spatial dimensions and uses a vertical transport scheme based on internal brine dynamics. Modeled ice algal chlorophyll-a concentrations and column-integrated values are broadly consistent with observations, though chl-a profile fractions indicate that upper ice communities of the Southern Ocean are underestimated. Simulations of polar integrated sea ice PP support the lower bound in published estimates for both polar regions with mean Arctic values of 7.5 and 15.5 TgC/a in the Southern Ocean. However, comparisons of the polar climate state with observations, using a maximal bound for ice algal growth rates, suggest that the Arctic lower bound is a significant underestimation driven by biases in ocean surface nitrate, and that correction of these biases supports as much as 60.7 TgC/a of net Arctic PP. Simulated Southern Ocean sympagic PP is predominantly light-limited, and regional patterns, particularly in the coastal high production band, are found to be negatively correlated with snow thickness.
Resource utilisation for infants with single ventricle CHD remains high without well-studied ways to decrease economic burden. Same-day discharge following cardiac catheterisation has been shown to be safe and effective in children with CHD, but those with single ventricle physiology are commonly excluded. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic implications of planned same-day discharge following cardiac catheterisation versus universal overnight hospital admission in infants with single ventricle CHD.
Methods and Results:
A probabilistic decision-tree analysis with sensitivity analyses was performed. All included patients were categorised into four possible outcomes; discharge, readmission following discharge (within 48 hours), observation and prolonged hospitalisation. Baseline probabilities of each node of the tree were then combined with the cost data to evaluate the comparative dominance of one decision (immediately discharge) versus the other decision (routinely admit). Patients discharged on the same day as the procedure accrued the lowest attributed hospital cost ($5469), while patients readmitted to the hospital had the highest attributed cost ($11,851). Currently, no other studies have assessed the cost of hospitalisation following cardiac catheterisation in this population. Thus, we allowed for a wide range of cost variation, but same-day discharge dominated the decision outcome with a lower economic burden.
Same-day discharge following routine cardiac catheterisation in patients with single ventricle physiology is less costly compared to universal overnight admission. This demonstrates an important cost-limiting step in a complex population of patients who have high resource utilisation.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
We sought to define the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determine the utility of screening in asymptomatic patients. We analysed echocardiograms performed on survivors who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1982 to 2006. A total of 389 patients were alive in 2017, with 114 having an echocardiogram obtained ⩾5 years post-infusion. A total of 95 patients had echocardiogram performed for routine surveillance. The mean time post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 13 years. Of 95 patients, 77 (82.1%) had ejection fraction measured, and 10/77 (13.0%) had ejection fraction z-scores ⩽−2.0, which is abnormally low. Those patients with abnormal ejection fraction were significantly more likely to have been exposed to anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Among individuals who received neither anthracyclines nor total body irradiation, only 1/31 (3.2%) was found to have an abnormal ejection fraction of 51.4%, z-score −2.73. In the cohort of 77 patients, the negative predictive value of having a normal ejection fraction given no exposure to total body irradiation or anthracyclines was 96.7% at 95% confidence interval (83.3–99.8%). Systolic dysfunction is relatively common in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who have received anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Survivors who are asymptomatic and did not receive radiation or anthracyclines likely do not require surveillance echocardiograms, unless otherwise indicated.
Migration was a key social process contributing to the creation of the ‘Chaco World’ between AD 800 and 1200. Dynamic social network analysis allows for evaluation of several migration scenarios, and demonstrates that Chaco’s earliest ninth-century networks show interaction with areas to the west and south, rather than migration to the Canyon from the Northern San Juan. By the late eleventh century, Chaco Canyon was tied strongly to the Middle and Northern San Juan, while a twelfth-century retraction of networks separated the Northern and Southern San Juan areas prior to regional depopulation. Understanding Chaco migration is important for comprehending both its uniqueness in U.S. Southwest archaeology and for comparison with other case studies worldwide.
The importance of parasites as a selective force in host evolution is a topic of current interest. However, short-term ecological studies of host–parasite systems, on which such studies are usually based, provide only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We report here on four surveys, carried out over a period of 12 years, of helminths of spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus), the numerically dominant rodents inhabiting dry montane wadis in the Sinai Peninsula. With host age (age-dependent effects on prevalence and abundance were prominent) and sex (female bias in abundance in helminth diversity and in several taxa including Cestoda) taken into consideration, we focus on the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. We show that site of capture is the major determinant of prevalence and abundance of species (and higher taxa) contributing to helminth community structure, the only exceptions being Streptopharaus spp. and Dentostomella kuntzi. We provide evidence that most (notably the Spiruroidea, Protospirura muricola, Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema aegypti, but with exceptions among the Oxyuroidae, e.g. Syphacia minuta), show elements of temporal-site stability, with a rank order of measures among sites remaining similar over successive surveys. Hence, there are some elements of predictability in these systems.
A population of junglerice from Sunflower County, MS, exhibited resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. An 11-fold difference in ED50 (the effective dose needed to reduce growth by 50%) values was observed when comparing the resistant population (249 g ae ha–1) with susceptible plants (20 g ae ha–1) collected from a different field. The resistant population was controlled by clethodim and sethoxydim at the field rate. Sequencing of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which encodes the enzyme targeted by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, did not reveal the presence of any known resistance-conferring point mutations. An enzyme assay confirmed that the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in the resistant population is herbicide sensitive. Further investigations with two cytochrome P450 inhibitors, malathion and piperonyl butoxide, and a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, did not indicate involvement of any metabolic enzymes inhibited by these compounds. The absence of a known target-site point mutation and the sensitivity of the ACCase enzyme to herbicide show that fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in this population is due to a non–target-site mechanism or mechanisms.
The [(BiSe)1+δ]1(VSe2)1 heterostructure was characterized structurally and electrically to determine the effects of interlayer interaction on the charge density wave (CDW) found in VSe2 and compared to previously reported [(SnSe)1.15]1(VSe2)1. Out-of-plane x-ray diffraction scans contain reflections that can be indexed as 00l reflections of a BiSe–VSe2 supercell. Structure refinement indicates that the VSe2 layer is very similar structurally to that found in [(SnSe)1.15]1(VSe2)1. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images show a turbostratically disordered layer structure and the formation of anti-phase boundaries in the BiSe bilayer. The [(BiSe)1+δ]1(VSe2)1 heterostructure is metallic with a negative Hall coefficient, in contrast to the positive Hall coefficient found for [(SnSe)1.15]1(VSe2)1. The CDW found [(SnSe)1.15]1(VSe2)1 is not present in [(BiSe)1+δ]1(VSe2)1. This work illustrates the importance of inter constituent interactions in determining the transport properties of single layer films.