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Smutgrass is a non-native perennial weed that is problematic because of its poor palatability to cattle and its difficulty to control once established. Limited literature exists to explain the effectiveness of herbicides other than hexazinone for smutgrass control and forage injury. This study aimed to evaluate seasonal applications of labeled herbicides used on forage for maximum smutgrass control. The second objective was to evaluate preemergent herbicides and hexazinone for their ability to control smutgrass germinating from seed. Hexazinone, nicosulfuron + metsulfuron-methyl, and glyphosate + imazapic were the most effective postemergence treatments, while quinclorac exhibited little activity on smutgrass. Common bermudagrass forage fully recovered from all treatments by 3 mo after treatment. Hexazinone, nicosulfuron + metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, and imazapic were applied postemergence to smutgrass in spring, summer, and fall. Summer applications of hexazinone resulted in the greatest level of control, while spring treatments provided the least control. Applications of hexazinone or glyphosate resulted in the most effective smutgrass control. However, fall applications resulted in the least forage injury. Results of the study of preemergence herbicides indicate that treatments with indaziflam and hexazinone provide adequate control of germinating smutgrass seedlings in the greenhouse at 0.25×, 0.5×, and 0.75× of the lowest recommended labeled rate for seedling grass control. Indaziflam treatments prevented the emergence of any visible smutgrass seedling tissue, compared to hexazinone, which fully controlled the germinating seedlings by 21 d after treatment, whereas pendimethalin significantly reduced seedling numbers at the 0.5× and 0.75× rates.
Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) is well adapted to the Gulf Coast region of the United States, but its varietal tolerance to glyphosate and triclopyr is not well defined. The research was conducted to determine the effect of various rates of glyphosate and triclopyr on established RPP, and the response of common RPP varieties to these herbicides. The RPP sward was approximately 7 yr younger at Zolfo Springs than at the Ona location. RPP showed moderate tolerance to glyphosate and triclopyr application, and injury level did not differ with the age of RPP sward. However, biomass production was negatively influenced by the age of the RPP sward. Overall, injury from glyphosate applications did not exceed 40% at either site. The glyphosate rate for 20% biomass reduction was predicted to be 0.53 and 2.17 kg ae ha−1 at Zolfo Springs and Ona, respectively. RPP injury from triclopyr was greater at the Zolfo Springs location than at Ona, and the triclopyr rate predicted to result in a 20% biomass reduction was 0.45 and 0.99 kg ae ha−1 at the Zolfo Springs and Ona locations, respectively. There was a difference on RPP varieties response to glyphosate and triclopyr application. ‘Florigraze’ and ‘Ona 33’ were less tolerant to glyphosate compared to ‘UF-Tito’ and ‘Ecoturf’ at 30 d after treatment. Likewise, UF-Tito and Florigraze were less tolerant to triclopyr compared to Ona 33 and Ecoturf. Overall, Florigraze showed highest injury and at least 2-fold reduction on biomass compared to the other three varieties from glyphosate or triclopyr application. Results from this research indicate that glyphosate and triclopyr appear to be safe to apply to long-established RPP stands, but herbicide rate and RPP varieties should be considered if stands are <5 yr old.
Pintoi peanut is a warm-season perennial legume that shows promise as a forage crop for the southeastern United States, however, little is known about the proper methods of weed management during establishment for this species. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of pintoi peanut to tolerate applications of PRE and POST herbicides during the year of and year after planting. The effects of herbicide treatments on percentage of visual estimates of injury and stand counts of pintoi peanut were investigated at Ona and Marianna, FL, in 2015 and 2016. All PRE herbicides did not result in significant injury or stand reduction. Pintoi peanut’s tolerance to POST herbicides was higher when plants were emerged for at least 2 wk prior to herbicide application. Stands of pintoi peanut that were planted the previous year appear to tolerate all herbicides examined in this work, except sulfosulfuron. Results of this study indicate that at the year of planting pintoi peanut is tolerant to PRE applications of pendimethalin, imazethapyr, and imazapic. Pintoi peanut appears to tolerate applications of 2,4-D, carfentrazone, imazapic and imazethapyr the year after planting at the rates utilized in this study. Future research should evaluate the effects of multiple herbicide applications and tank-mixes to obtain satisfactory weed control and selectivity in pintoi peanut swards.
The pyridine carboxylic acid (PCA) herbicide family can exhibit differential activity within and among plant species, despite molecular resemblances. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP), a pyrimidine carboxylic acid, is a recently discovered compound with similar use patterns to those of the PCA family; however, relative activity among PCAs and AMCP is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify relative activity among aminopyralid, picloram, clopyralid, triclopyr, and AMCP in canola, squash, and okra using dose-response whole-plant bioassays. Clopyralid was less active than all other herbicides in all species and did not fit dose-response models. Aminopyralid and picloram performed similarly in squash (ED50 = 21.1 and 23.3 g ae ha−1, respectively). Aminopyralid was 3.8 times and 1.7 times more active than picloram in canola (ED50 = 60.3 and 227.7 g ha−1, respectively) and okra (ED50 = 10.3 and 17.3 g ha−1, respectively). Triclopyr (ED50 = 37.3 g ha−1) was more active than AMCP (ED50 = 112.9 g ha−1) and picloram in canola. Aminocyclopyrachlor (ED50 = 6.6 g ha−1) and triclopyr (ED50 = 7.8 g ha−1) were more active in squash than aminopyralid and picloram. In okra, AMCP (ED50 = 14.6 g ha−1) and aminopyralid (ED50 = 10.3 g ha−1) performed similarly but were more active than triclopyr (ED50 = 88.2 g ha−1). Herbicidal activity among AMCP and PCAs was vastly different despite molecular similarities that could be due to variable target-site sensitivity among species.
Hen’s eyes (Ardisia crenata Sims) is a shade-tolerant invasive shrub displacing native understory in forests of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Few studies have explored herbicide effectiveness on A. crenata, with foliar applications of triclopyr amine or triclopyr ester typically referenced as the standard treatments. This study evaluated efficacy of eight foliar herbicide treatments and a nontreated check at three locations at 12 mo after the first treatment (12MAT1) and 12 mo after the second treatment (12MAT2) on established (greater than 8-cm high) and seedling (less than 8-cm high) A. crenata. Treatments were four triclopyr formulations: amine, ester, choline, and acid (all at 4.04 kg ae ha−1); imazamox (1.12 and 2.24 kg ae ha−1); flumioxazin (0.43 kg ai ha−1); and triclopyr amine plus flumioxazin (4.04 + 0.43 kg ae ha−1). At 12MAT1, triclopyr ester, the high rate of imazamox, and triclopyr acid resulted in greater control of established A. crenata than any other herbicide (68%, 66%, and 64%, respectively). At 12MAT2, all herbicides except flumioxazin resulted in some control of A. crenata. Triclopyr ester, triclopyr acid, and the high rate of imazamox provided 95%, 93%, and 92% control, respectively. Triclopyr choline did not perform as well as the acid or ester formulations, and the tank mix of flumioxazin and triclopyr amine did not improve control over triclopyr amine alone. This study identified triclopyr acid and imazamox (2.24 kg ae ha−1) as new options for A. crenata control and indicated variation in the performance among the four triclopyr formulations.
Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.
Field studies were conducted on organic soils in Belle Glade, FL, in 2016 to 2017 to evaluate sugarcane tolerance and fall panicum control with topramezone applied alone or in combination with triazine herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, ametryn). Treatments included topramezone (25 and 50 g ai ha−1) applied alone or in combination with atrazine (2,240 g ai ha−1), metribuzin (2,240 g ai ha−1), and ametryn (440 g ha−1) on four plant cane varieties to evaluate tolerance, and on second ratoon fields to determine efficacy on fall panicum control. Topramezone applied alone had no effect on sugarcane chlorophyll fluorescence (i.e., the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence), total chlorophyll, and carotenoid 7 to 28 d after treatment (DAT), suggesting sugarcane tolerance. Significant reduction of these parameters occured 7 to 14 DAT when topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) was applied with ametryn or metribuzin; however, reductions were not detected thereafter, indicating recovery. Sugarcane yield was not affected by topramezone applied alone or in combination with the triazine herbicides. Topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) plus metribuzin resulted in acceptable control of fall panicum (84%) with limited to no regrowth of meristematic tissue at sugarcane canopy closure, equivalent to 56 to 70 DAT. These results indicate that when sequential applications of topramezone, applied alone or in combination with these triazine herbicides, are required for efficacious weed control, topramezone applications alone can be made after 7 d, whereas the combinations can be made after 14 or 21 d, depending on sugarcane sensitivity.
Cadillo is an invasive species in Florida pastures and natural areas. Despite its invasiveness, relatively few studies have evaluated cadillo management. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine effective POST herbicides for cadillo control in Florida. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center near Ona, FL, in 2015 and 2016. In the greenhouse study, triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, metsulfuron, 2,4-D amine, aminopyralid+metsulfuron, aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron, and imazapyr+aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron provided ≥80% control of cadillo 28 d after treatment (DAT). Aminocyclopyrachlor at 17 and 35 g ha–1 were the only treatments with <80% control, with 70% and 75% control, respectively. Similar results were reflected in cadillo dry biomass reduction. The herbicide treatments used in the field study were triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, 2,4-D amine, aminocyclopyrachlor, and triclopyr+fluroxypyr. Most treatments provided excellent control in the field (≥90% control) 30 DAT, and by 60 DAT all treatments provided 100% control. Results from these studies suggest that cadillo is susceptible to many of the common POST herbicides utilized in pastures and natural areas in Florida.
Sugarcane growers in Florida have been reporting reduced control of fall panicum with asulam, the main herbicide used for POST grass control. Therefore, outside container experiments were conducted to determine the response of four fall panicum populations from Florida to asulam applied alone and to evaluate whether tank-mix combination with trifloxysulfuron enhances control. Asulam was applied at 230 to 7,400 g ai ha−1, corresponding to 1/16 to 2X the maximum labeled rate for a single application in sugarcane, with or without combination with trifloxysulfuron at 16 g ai ha−1. Three fall panicum populations were collected from fields in which reduced control had been reported, while one population was from a field not used for sugarcane production but adjacent to a sugarcane field. The potency of asulam based on ED50 values (the rate required to cause 50% dry weight reduction at 28 d after treatment) ranged from 2,249 to 5,412 g ha−1 for tolerant populations with reported reduced fall panicum control compared with 1,808 g ha−1 for the susceptible population from the field not used for sugarcane production, showing that the latter was most sensitive to asulam. Addition of trifloxysulfuron to asulam increased potency on fall panicum by 5- to 15-fold, indicating that the tank mix enhanced dry weight reduction for all populations. The probability of fall panicum survival (regrowth after aboveground biomass harvesting) at the labeled rate of asulam ranged from 2% to 47% compared with 0% to 6% when trifloxysulfuron was added to the tank mix. Our results show differential response of fall panicum populations in Florida to asulam, which can be overcome by tank mixing with trifloxysulfuron even for populations that are difficult to control in sugarcane, but no evolution of resistance to asulam.
Tropical signalgrass (TSG) is one of the most problematic weeds found on golf courses, sports fields, and sod farms in south Florida. The recent ban of monosodium methane-arsonate (MSMA), an organic arsenical herbicide, from urban areas in Florida has left turfgrass managers searching for effective management options. In an effort to avoid relying solely on POST chemical control, this research examined the effect of combining a cultural practice, verticutting, along with PRE and POST herbicides as an integrated weed management approach to controlling TSG in hybrid bermudagrass. Field experiments were conducted at multiple locations over 2 yr in south Florida to: (1) determine whether verticutting before herbicide applications increases TSG control and (2) identify herbicide programs that effectively control TSG. No interactions between verticutting and herbicide programs were detected, but verticutting consistently provided a slight reduction (8% averaged across herbicide treatments) in TSG cover. Treatments containing a PRE herbicide resulted in a significant reduction (20% to 50%) in TSG cover at 52 wk after initial treatment (WAIT), while some POST herbicide treatments reduced TSG cover to <20% at 52 WAIT. A study was conducted to determine which POST herbicide combinations were most efficacious in controlling TSG. Amicarbazone alone provided ≤35% TSG control at 8 and 12 WAIT, but synergistic responses were observed between amicarbazone and mesotrione, trifloxysulfuron, and thiencarbazone+foramsulfuron+halosulfuron. Two- and three-way combinations of amicarbazone with these POST herbicides resulted in >80% TSG control at 4, 8, and 12 WAIT, with some reaching 100% TSG control at 4 WAIT. Based on these data, verticutting may provide limited complementary control, but certain combinations of POST herbicides exhibited excellent (>95%) TSG control.
Cogongrass is commonly found in disturbed areas in Florida, where it is increasingly becoming a problem in bahiagrass pastures. Soil pH has been suggested as a possible mechanism for this invasion; to evaluate this, replacement series competition studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions at two soil pH levels: pH 4.5, or pH 6.8. Cogongrass ramets and bahiagrass seedlings were planted at proportions of 0:40, 1:20, 2:10, 4:1, and 8:0, respectively. Aboveground biomass was measured after 8 weeks and used to calculate relative yield, relative crowding coefficients, and aggressivity values. At soil pH 4.5, the relative competitiveness of cogongrass and bahiagrass was similar, with both species contributing equally to relative yield. At soil pH 6.8, bahiagrass seedlings showed greater competitive ability than cogongrass ramets. Relative crowding coefficient and aggressivity values supported this, with bahiagrass showing increased competitiveness under higher soil pH. This indicates that decreases in soil pH, often associated with poor soil fertility, is likely a contributing factor for cogongrass invasion into bahiagrass pastures. Soil amendments to raise pH may provide a cultural management tool for cogongrass infestations in pastures.
Triclopyr is a synthetic auxin herbicide currently available as a triethylamine salt, butoxyethyl ester, pyridinyloxyacetic acid, or choline salt. The formulation of a herbicide has the potential to impact its activity; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of these four triclopyr formulations. Greenhouse dose–response studies were conducted twice at the University of Florida in 2015. The four formulations were foliar applied at rates ranging from 17 to 1,121 g ae ha−1 to 2- to 3-leaf soybean, sunflower, tomato, and cotton. The amine salt formulation provided the lowest ED50 values in tomato and sunflower (22.87 and 60.39 g ha−1, respectively); whereas in soybean, amine and choline formulations provided the lowest ED50 values (22.56 and 20.95 g ha−1, respectively). No differences between formulations were observed in cotton. These data suggest that (1) the amine salt formulation of triclopyr might be more active than the others on tomato and sunflower, and (2) the amine and choline salt formulations might be more active than the others on soybean. Further work must be conducted to determine whether there are differences among these formulations under a range of field conditions and target species. In addition, other important management factors such as applicator safety, volatility potential, and cost should be considered when choosing the best formulated product to be applied.
Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the tolerance of limpograss to increasing rates of hexazinone. Dose-response curves were generated using linear and quadratic regression models to determine the hexazinone estimated dose (ED) required to provide 10% (ED10) and 20% (ED20) of visual injury and herbage mass reduction. The ED10 and ED20 for visual estimates of injury were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.14 kg ai ha-1 at 60 d after treatment (DAT). Regarding forage herbage mass reduction, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.07 and 0.19 kg ai ha-1 in 2013, whereas in 2014, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.03 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1, respectively. The significant difference in herbage mass reduction between 2013 and 2014 was likely due to rainfall patterns, which possibly promoted hexazinone leaching in 2013 and consequently, less activity. Overall, hexazinone resulted in high degrees of limpograss injury across all response variables in both years; therefore, smutgrass control in limpograss pastures with hexazinone may not be a viable option. The presence or absence of smutgrass should be considered before limpograss establishment as there is no viable herbicide to selectively remove smutgrass from limpograss swards.
Two varieties of bahiagrass were evaluated under Florida conditions for forage tolerance to the new herbicide, aminocyclopyrachlor (ACP), which is essential for product development decisions. Herbicide treatments included ACP alone at 70 and 140 g ai ha−1, ACP + chlorsulfuron at 69 + 27 and 138 + 54 g ai ha−1, ACP + 2,4-D amine at 70 + 532 g ai ha−1 and 140 + 1,064 g ai ha−1, ACP + triclopyr-amine at 70 + 140 g ai ha−1 and 140 + 280 g ai ha−1, and ACP + metsulfuron at 46 + 7, 78 + 12, and 168 + 26 g ai ha−1, and also included a nontreated check. ‘Argentine’ bahiagrass was the most tolerant forage species, and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass was sensitive to ACP + metsulfuron and initially to ACP + chlorsulfuron. Herbicide applications using ACP, when labeled, will likely provide good to excellent control of several weed species, with little long-term impact on bahiagrass forage production when the cultivar is known.
Smutgrass is an invasive warm-season perennial bunch-type grass native to tropical Asia. The two varieties of smutgrass prevalent in Florida are small smutgrass and giant smutgrass. Laboratory seed germination experiments were conducted on both smutgrass varieties to determine the effect of various environmental factors on germination and emergence. The average germination rate for both varieties was 88% at 30/20 C day/night temperatures. Seed germination for both varieties was greater under simulated temperature flux than at constant temperatures. Seed of both varieties germinated at four simulated Florida temperature fluxes (22/11, 27/15, 33/24, and 29/19 C day/night), although the germination of small smutgrass and giant smutgrass was reduced at 33/24 and 22/11 C, respectively. Germination of small and giant smutgrass under dark conditions was 27 and 53%, respectively. Both smutgrass varieties germinated over a wide range of pH values. Small and giant smutgrass germination was inhibited at water potentials below −0.2 MPa and when small smutgrass seed was placed below the soil surface. Emergence of giant smutgrass seed did not occur below 3 cm. Both smutgrass varieties germinated over a broad range of environmental conditions, indicating their capability of year-round germination; however, germination is only likely to occur under field conditions during the summer growing season when rainfall is prevalent. These results indicate that both species have the ability to germinate over a wide range of environmental conditions but that germination is inhibited by moisture stress and depth of burial. Considering that giant smutgrass prefers higher temperatures than small smutgrass, the advent of rainfall from June through September is conducive for germination. Practices that focus on the germination pattern of smutgrass could lead to better long-term management of smutgrass in Florida.
Largeleaf lantana is a perennial shrub that commonly infests pastures, roadsides, and natural areas. Many experiments have been conducted to manage this weed, but few successful herbicides have been found. Little information is available for the effectiveness of fluroxypyr, aminopyralid, or aminocyclopyrachlor on largeleaf lantana. Experiments were conducted in central Florida on dense, natural infestations of largeleaf lantana. Aminopyralid (0.12 kg ha−1), fluroxypyr (0.56 kg ha−1), and aminocyclopyrachlor (0.2 kg ha−1) were either applied in the fall (approximately 2 mo before frost) or in the fall followed by a spring application. Aminopyralid was ineffective on largeleaf lantana, and neither one nor two applications resulted in > 20% control 1 yr after treatment (YAT). Fluroxypyr applied once in the fall resulted in 12% control at 1 YAT, but two applications resulted in 80% control after 1 yr. The combination of fluroxypyr + aminopyralid, applied twice, resulted in approximately 90% control 1 YAT. A single application of fluroxypyr + aminopyralid failed to provide greater than 20% control. Conversely, aminocyclopyrachlor applied once in the fall provided 98% control of largeleaf at 1 YAT. Where aminocyclopyrachlor was applied twice, largeleaf lantana control was 100%. From these data, largeleaf lantana can be effectively controlled by two applications of fluroxypyr, two applications of fluroxypyr + aminopyralid, or a single application of aminocyclopyrachlor. Individual plant treatments were also investigated using herbicides applied as basal or cut surface applications. At 1 YAT, only triclopyr + aminopyralid provided > 90% control as a basal application. The other herbicide combinations appeared to be effective earlier, but significant regrowth had occurred by 1 YAT. Cut surface applications were similar with triclopyr + aminopyralid and triclopyr + fluroxypyr providing effective control. Neither triclopyr alone nor imazapyr provided effective control for 1 YAT with basal or cut surface applications.
Saflufenacil is a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicide registered for use before establishment of field corn and soybean. Generally, peanut plants are tolerant to other herbicides in this class, and no reports document the utility of saflufenacil for in-season weed control. Experiments were conducted to determine whether saflufenacil applied at 12, 25, and 50 g ha−1 could effectively control Benghal dayflower and Palmer amaranth. It was observed that saflufenacil, applied either PRE or POST, was ineffective for Benghal dayflower. The maximum control at 28 d after treatment (DAT) was 79% when 50 g ha−1 was applied to 5- to 10-cm plants. Control of Palmer amaranth from PRE applications was less effective than flumioxazin at 28 DAT. However, POST applications provided > 87% control at 28 DAT when applied to plants 5 to 10 cm in height. For plants 10 to 15 cm in height, > 90% Palmer amaranth control was only achieved by the 50 g ha−1 application rate. For plants 15 to 20 cm in height, no POST application provided > 70% control. Peanut response, in a weed-free environment, to saflufenacil rate and application timing were also evaluated. Peanut stunting ranged from 0 to 36%, relative to application timing. Applications made at 0 d after emergence (DAE) were least injurious, whereas those made at 15 DAE were most injurious. Application of 50 g ha−1 provided the greatest amount of stunting and foliar injury. However, stunting and saflufenacil application rate did not correspond to yield reduction. Saflufenacil application timing did influence peanut yield. Applications made between 0 and 30 DAE did not result in yield loss, whereas applications made at 45 and 60 DAE resulted in a 5 and 19% reduction, respectively. Though saflufenacil has many positive characteristics, higher application rates are required for optimum weed control. However, these higher use rates also resulted in unacceptable levels of injury.
Velvetleaf plants have diurnal leaf movements, which may result in decreased interception of herbicides when applications are made near sunset. However, it is not known if leaf angle alone accounts for diurnal fluctuations in efficacy. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of time of day (TOD) of application and velvetleaf leaf angle on glufosinate efficacy and spray interception. Glufosinate at 90, 180, and 360 g ai/ha was applied to 10-cm-tall plants at 4:00, 6:00, 7:00, 7:30, and 8:00 P.M., respectively. Leaf angles were either manipulated physically to −90° or the plant's natural 2:00 P.M. leaf angle (approximately −10°) or were allowed to exhibit their natural leaf movements. Plant dry weight 3 wk after treatment revealed that TOD effects were observed for all leaf angle treatments after glufosinate application at 90 g/ha. At 180 g/ha glufosinate, there was no TOD effect for plants with 2 P.M. leaf angles, whereas there was a TOD effect for plants with −90° and natural leaf angles. At 360 g/ha glufosinate, biomass for the −90° leaf angle plants was similar to that for the natural and the 2:00 P.M. leaf angle plants when glufosinate was applied at 4:00 P.M. but was significantly different at or after 6:00 P.M. This suggests that at least 4 h of light is needed to provide optimum herbicide activity when spray interception is reduced as a result of leaf movements. Leaf angle decreased by as much as 70% from 4:00 to 8:00 P.M., which resulted in approximately 50% less spray interception at 8:00 P.M. than at 4:00 P.M. These data provide evidence that leaf angle plays a pivotal role in reducing glufosinate efficacy when applications are made near sundown. However, leaf angle is not the sole reason for reduced efficacy because TOD effects were observed at different leaf angles with 4 h of light, after an application of 360 g/ha glufosinate.
Cadillo is an invasive species commonly found in pastures, rangelands, and disturbed areas. It is becoming a significant problem weed in Florida pastures and natural areas. The objectives of this research were to determine effective techniques to break seed dormancy and the effect of light, temperature, pH, water stress, and depth of seed burial on Cadillo germination. Cadillo seeds had significant levels of innate dormancy imposed by a hard seed coat; chemical scarification was the most effective technique for removing dormancy. Seeds germinated from 15 to 40 C, with an optimal temperature of 28 C. Germination was unaffected by pH levels. Water stress below −0.2 MPa reduced seed germination. Cadillo germination was not light-dependent and seeds emerged from depths up to 9 cm, with the greatest occurring emergence near the soil surface. Considering that Cadillo seed can germinate under a wide range of environmental conditions, it is not surprising that it has become a serious invasive weed in Florida.
Smutgrass, a native of tropical Asia, is a perennial weed that affects many improved perennial grass pastures in Florida and throughout the southeastern United States. The two varieties of smutgrass predominant in Florida are small smutgrass and giant smutgrass. Three field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2012 to evaluate the effect of integrated long-term management strategies using both cultural and herbicide inputs for giant smutgrass control in bahiagrass pastures. Burning did not have a significant impact on long-term control. In 2011, no differences were observed when hexazinone was integrated with tillage or hexazinone was combined with supplemental nitrogen compared with sequential or single applications of hexazinone. However, cultural treatments that preceded hexazinone application compared with those that received two sequential applications of hexazinone had lower smutgrass control 36 mo after treatment. Data indicate that a sequential application of hexazinone may be better than implementing tillage. Sequential hexazinone applications, when applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 or greater, resulted in similar or increased control as compared with single applications. Collectively, these data suggest that sequential applications of hexazinone may be most effective for smutgrass management, and cultural techniques, including tillage, should be followed by hexazinone application the following year.