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Goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] is one of the most problematic grassy weeds in the world. It is considered to be an important weed in summer fallows and crops grown in the eastern region of Australia. To examine the seed germination ecology of two populations (Gatton and Ingham) of E. indica and their response to postemergence herbicides in Australian conditions, experiments were carried out in the laboratory and screenhouse. Seedling survival, spike production, and plant biomass of both E. indica populations declined markedly with the application of postemergence herbicides such as butroxydim, clethodim, glufosinate, haloxyfop, and propaquizafop, whereas the application of paraquat failed to control the Ingham population. A dose–response study verified the presence of paraquat resistance in the Ingham population. In this regard, it was observed that the paraquat doses required to achieve a 50% reduction in survival and plant biomass were 27 and 21 times greater in the Ingham population compared to the Gatton population, respectively. Higher alternating temperatures (35/25 and 30/20 C) resulted in greater germination of both populations than lower alternating temperatures (20/10 and 25/15 C). At 20/10 C, the Ingham population failed to germinate; however, about 15% germination in the Gatton population was observed. At the lowest alternate temperature range (15/5 C), neither population germinated. The germination of both populations of E. indica was severely reduced under completely dark conditions compared with the alternating light/dark period. Germination was more tolerant of salt and water stress in the Ingham population compared with the Gatton population. Eleusine indica seedling emergence was comparable among populations, and the greatest emergence (83%) was observed for seeds buried at a depth of 2 cm but then declined dramatically, and no seedlings emerged from an 8-cm burial depth. The information acquired from this study could be used in developing effective management strategies for E. indica.
In Iran, monochoria is a noxious weed in fields of transplanted rice. Two field experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of soil-applied and foliar-applied herbicides to control monochoria in transplanted rice. Prepackaged herbicides (triafamone plus ethoxysulfuron applied at 40 g ai ha−1, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus pretilachlor applied at 382.5 g ai ha−1, and pendimethalin plus clomazone applied at 1,200 g ai ha−1) reduced monochoria biomass by 100%, 100%, and 14%, respectively; and a single application of flucetosulfuron at 30 g ai ha−1, pendimethalin at 990 g ai ha−1, thiobencarb at 2,750 g ai ha−1, and pretilachlor at 1,000 g ai ha−1 reduced monochoria biomass by 100%, 99%, 75%, and 56%, respectively, compared with a nontreated control. Tank-mixed bensulfuron-methyl at 45 g ai ha−1 applied with pretilachlor, thiobencarb, or pendimethalin provided 100% control of monochoria. Rice height, and straw and grain yield were greater after herbicide treatments than those of the nontreated and hand-weeded controls, indicating the advantages of chemical control of monochoria over manual weeding. Full-season monochoria interference reduced rice grain yield by 32%. In the second study, the herbicides triafamone plus ethoxysulfuron, flucetosulfuron, 2,4-D at 1,080 g ai ha−1, dicamba plus 2,4-D at 928 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-sodium at 31.25 g ai ha−1, bentazon plus MCPA at 1,150 g ai ha−1, pyribenzoxim at 30 g ai ha−1, and propanil at 5,400 g ai ha−1 applied to foliage at 4- to 5-leaf seedlings of monochoria provided ≥97% control and prevented 100% of its regrowth, with the exception of propanil. This study shows that monochoria control can be achieved by using a variety of residual and foliar-applied herbicides with different mechanisms of action.
African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan), turnipweed [Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.], and African turnipweed (Sisymbrium thellungii O.E. Schulz) are common broadleaf weeds in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crops, particularly under dryland region conditions in eastern Australia. Information on crop yield losses and the seed production potential for these weeds in chickpea are limited. Field studies were conducted in the winter seasons of 2020 and 2021 in eastern Australia with different densities of the three weeds (B. tournefortii, R. rugosum, and S. thellungii) in chickpea. Based on the sigmoidal model, chickpea yield was reduced by 50% at 11 plants m−2 of B. tournefortii. Based on hyperbolic models, a 50% yield reduction of chickpea occurred at 5 and 25 plants m−2 of R. rugosum and S. thellungii, respectively. Based on the linear model, B. tournefortii, R. rugosum, and S. thellungii produced a maximum of 448,000, 206,700, and 869,400, seeds m−2, respectively. At chickpea harvest, the low seed retention (<55%) of B. tournefortii and S. thellungii suggests limited opportunities for harvest weed seed control, and the seed rain of these weeds may enrich the weed seedbank in the soil. At crop harvest, the seed retention of R. rugosum was found to be greater than 90%, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for harvest weed seed control. This study demonstrated that R. rugosum could cause a greater reduction in chickpea yield compared with B. tournefortii and S. thellungii. Furthermore, restricting seed rain of B. tournefortii and S. thellungii by not allowing the plants to produce seeds is recommended to reduce their weed seedbanks in the soil. The information generated from this study could aid in strengthening integrated weed management in chickpea.
Alkali barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis (Kunth) Hitchc] and junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] are problematic annual weeds in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in China. The emergence ecology of the two weed species may differ in response to environmental factors. Laboratory and screenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of light, burial depth, mulching with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue, and time and depth of flooding on the emergence of the two weed species collected from Nanjing, China. Light strongly increased seed germination. Under dark conditions, E. crus-galli seed germination (85%) was higher than that of E. colona (70%). The seeds of both species exhibited the greatest germination (90% for E. crus-galli and 80% for E. colona) when sown on the soil surface, and emergence decreased with increasing soil burial depth. Burial depths of 2.2 and 1.4 cm reduced seedling emergence by 50% for E. crus-galli and E. colona, respectively. No emergence was found at a depth of 6 cm. The seedling emergence for E. colona was lower than for E. crus-galli at the same soil burial depth. Mulching with wheat residue considerably reduced the seedling emergence and aboveground biomass of both species. The inhibitory effect of mulching with wheat residue on E. colona was more notable than on E. crus-galli. Early and deep flooding significantly suppressed the emergence, height, and biomass of E. crus-galli and E. colona, especially E. colona. The results gained from this study could provide fundamental ecological knowledge for managing Echinochloa species in direct-seeded rice systems.
Vipergrass [Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer] is an annual weed of the Poaceae family distributed in several parts of Australia, Asia, and Europe. Very limited information is available on its germination response to different environmental conditions. Knowledge of its seed ecology and biology could help in formulating better weed management decisions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of alternating temperatures, light conditions, salt stress, water stress, seed burial depths, and wheat residue amounts on the germination or emergence of D. retroflexa. Also, different pre- and postemergence herbicides were evaluated to control D. retroflexa. The highest germination (98%) was recorded at 30/20 C followed by 35/25 C (95%). Light was required for the germination of D. retroflexa. Germination decreased with an increase in sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations. Even at 80 mM NaCl, 81% of seeds germinated, indicating D. retroflexa’s high salt tolerance. Seed germination gradually decreased with an increase in water stress, and no germination was recorded at −0.8 MPa osmotic potential. The emergence of D. retroflexa decreased with an increase in seed burial depths. The highest germination (83%) was recorded for surface-sown seeds, and emergence was reduced to 0 at a burial depth of 2 cm. Seedling emergence decreased from 82% to 2% when the crop residue load was increased from 0 to 800 kg ha−1. Applications of preemergence herbicides (at field rates), such as diuron, isoxaflutole, pendimethalin, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine, and triallate, and postemergence herbicides, such as clethodim, haloxyfop-methyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr (a commercial mixture), and paraquat, resulted in complete control (100%) of D. retroflexa. Knowledge gained from this study will help us to understand the potential spread of D. retroflexa to other areas and to formulate integrated weed management strategies for its effective control.
Australian grain growers are showing interest in winter-planted sorghum to avoid heat and water stress during the grain-filling stage. Winter-planted sorghum may face competition from winter weeds, including sterile oats, and no herbicides are registered for controlling winter weeds in winter-planted sorghum. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify alternate herbicide options for sterile oats control in winter-sown imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant sorghum and (2) assess the crop injury levels due to herbicides. Sterile oats control with pendimethalin at 0.59 kg ai ha−1, trifluralin at 0.38 kg ai ha−1, and prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor at 2.3 kg ai ha−1 was poor (<30%). Atrazine at 2.7 kg ai ha−1, imazamox + imazapyr at 0.048 kg ai ha−1, and atrazine at 2.7 kg ai ha−1 followed by imazamox + imazapyr at 0.048 kg ai ha−1 reduced the sterile oats biomass by 93%, 96%, and 100% and increased yields by 116%, 136%, and 140%, respectively, compared with nontreated control. Pendimethalin at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and trifluralin at 0.38 kg ai ha−1 caused phytotoxicity to the crop and gave similar yields to nontreated control. Triallate at 0.8 kg ai ha−1, pyroxasulfone at 0.1 kg ai ha−1, and terbuthylazine at 1.0 kg ai ha−1 provided moderate weed control (44% to 65%) and increased yields by 68%, 108%, and 80%, respectively, compared with nontreated control. This research identified herbicide treatments for the effective control of sterile oats in winter-sown IMI-resistant sorghum that could be used in rotations to reduce the reliance on single herbicide treatments.
An in-depth understanding of the germination response of troublesome weed species, such as feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata Sw.), to environmental factors (temperature, soil moisture, etc.) could play an essential role in the development of sustainable site-specific weed control programs. A laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the germination response of 10 different biotypes of C. virgata to five temperature regimes (ranging from 15/5 to 35/25 C) under a 12/12-h (light/dark) photoperiod. No consistent germination behavior was observed between biotypes, as some biotypes demonstrated high final cumulative germination (FCG) at low alternating temperature regimes (15/5 and 20/10 C) and some biotypes exhibited high FCG at a high alternating temperature regime (30/20 C). All biotypes revealed late germination initiation (T10, time taken to reach 10% germination) at the lowest temperature range (15/5 C), ranging from 171 to 173 h. However, less time was required to reach 90% germination (T90), ranging from 202 to 756 h. At higher alternating temperature regimes (30/20 and 35/25 C), all biotypes initiated germination (T10) within 40 h, and a wide range of hours was required to reach 90% germination (T90), ranging from 284 to 1,445 h. Differences in FCG of all the biotypes at all the temperature ranges showcased the differential germination nature among biotypes of C. virgata. The cool temperatures delayed germination initiation compared with warmer temperatures, even though FCGs were similar across a wide range of thermal conditions, indicating that this species will be problematic throughout the calendar year in different agronomic environments. The data from this study have direct implications on scheduling herbicide protocols, tillage timing, and planting time. Therefore, data generated from this study can aid in the development of area- and species-specific weed control protocols to achieve satisfactory control of this weed species.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is increasing its prevalence in eastern Australia by adapting to Australia’s changing climatic conditions and conservation agricultural systems and by evolving resistance to glyphosate. Information is limited on the growth and seed production dynamics of E. colona when it interferes with mung bean [Vigna radiata (L). R. Wilczek], a major potential export crop for eastern Australia. This field study examined the interference of E. colona in mung bean for two summer seasons (2020 and 2021) at Gatton, QLD. Different infestation levels (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 plants m−2) of E. colona were assessed for their potential to cause yield reductions in mung bean. Seed yield of mung bean was highest in the weed-free plots (2,767 kg ha−1) and declined by 20%, 27%, 34%, and 43% at weed infestation levels of 4, 8, 16, and 32 plants m−2, respectively. Echinochloa colona biomass in mung bean varied from 11 to 137 g m−2 as weed density increased from 2 to 32 plants m−2. Based on a three-parameter hyperbolic rectangular decay model, crop yield loss was 52% and 57%, respectively, when weed density and weed biomass approached maximum. Echinochloa colona at the highest density (32 plants m−2) produced a maximum of 15,140 seeds m−2, and this seed production was reduced by 50% at a weed density of 10 plants m−2. Echinochloa colona plants retained 63% to 68% seeds at mung bean maturity, indicating a great opportunity for harvest weed seed control. This study suggests that a high infestation of E. colona in mung bean fields could cause a substantial yield loss and increase the weed seedbank.
Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] is a perennial weed in more than 25 countries, including Australia. Knowledge regarding the seed biology of L. leucocephala could help in making weed management decisions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of hot water (scarification), alternating temperatures, heat stress, salt stress, water stress, and burial depth on seed germination of two populations of L. leucocephala collected from Toowoomba and Gatton, Australia. The optimum duration of hot water treatment to break the hard seed coat dormancy was 2 min for both populations. The highest germination (92% to 98%) was recorded at 35/25 C for both populations, and similar germination occurred at 30/20 C. The Toowoomba population recorded greater germination at low temperature (15/5 to 25/15 C) than the Gatton population. Additionally, the Gatton population had higher germination than the Toowoomba population after 5 min of exposure to temperatures of up to 100 C, suggesting that the Gatton population may be more tolerant to heat stress. Germination was completely inhibited at pretreatment (5 min) temperatures of 150 to 250 C. The Toowoomba population recorded 17% greater germination than the Gatton population at a high salt concentration (160 mM NaCl), indicating its greater salt tolerance. At low moisture stress (−0.1 and −0.2 MPa), higher germination was observed in the Toowoomba population than in the Gatton population, whereas germination was similar for both populations at higher water stress levels (−0.4 MPa or lower). Germination was similar for both populations at shallow depths (0 and 1 cm) but higher emergence was recorded for the Toowoomba population at 2 to 8 cm than the Gatton population. Differential germination behaviors of both populations suggest that they adapted differently in their respective local environments. Knowledge gained from this study will help in formulating integrated management practices for L. leucocephala.
This study was undertaken to investigate the integration effects of pretilachlor, oxadiazon, and dimethenamid with or without glyphosate in a stale seedbed method to control weedy rice in wet-seeded rice. The study, conducted in 2018 and 2019, comprised two seedbed treatments in main plots, with and without glyphosate (850 g ae ha−1), and four subplot treatments: pretilachlor, oxadiazon, dimethenamid, and unsprayed check. Fifteen days after glyphosate spray, each subplot was treated with preemergence herbicides at 500 g ai ha−1 under standing water conditions (2 to 3 in.), and the water level was maintained for 7 d. Pregerminated rice seeds (var. MR297) were hand-broadcasted in the moist soil at 120 kg ha−1 seeding rate. In 2019, the density and dry weight of weedy rice were 30% and 118% higher Gthan those observed in 2018, respectively. A stale seedbed with glyphosate reduced weedy rice dry weight by 12% as compared to what was observed in a stale seedbed without glyphosate. Addition of oxadiazon and pretilachlor to the stale seedbed drastically reduced weedy rice dry weight by 70% to 88% and 53% to 60% in both years. Dimethenamid contributed to a significant reduction of weedy rice dry weight of 19% in 2019 only but failed to provide a positive economic return. Integration of pretilachlor and oxadiazon in a stale seedbed with glyphosate gave profitable returns of $84.00 to 311.4 ha−1 and $175.70 to 483.8 ha−1, respectively. Without the presence of glyphosate, pretilachlor and oxadiazon contributed a positive return of $318.90 and $469.40, respectively, in 2018, but the economic returns were negative in 2019. These results suggest that integration of pretilachlor or oxadiazon in a stale seedbed with glyphosate is more crucial when weedy rice infestation is high, but glyphosate can be excluded from the management regime when the weedy rice populations are low.
Pondweed is a rhizomatous perennial weed of aquatic habitats that recently adapted to rice ecosystems in northern Iran. Two field experiments were conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran to determine the impact of pondweed on rice yield and identify effective herbicides for pondweed control. The focus of the first study was to evaluate the herbicides commonly used in Iranian rice, including butachlor, pretilachlor, oxadiargyl, pendimethalin, thiobencarb, and bensulfuron-methyl. None of these herbicides effectively controlled pondweed, except bensulfuron, which reduced pondweed biomass by ≥95% and produced 26% higher rough rice grain yield than the nontreated plots. The second experiment evaluated the performance of acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides on pondweed control, rough rice yield, and pondweed regrowth. Herbicide efficacy on pondweed varied from 36% to 100%. Five preemergence herbicides, bensulfuron at 45 g ai ha−1, flucetosulfuron at 30 g ai ha−1, triafamone plus ethoxysulfuron at 40 g ai ha−1, and metsulfuron-methyl at 15 g ai ha−1, provided ≥98% control of pondweed. Use of postemergence herbicides penoxsulam at 35 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-sodium at 30 g ai ha−1, and pyribenzoxim at 35 g ai ha−1 provided 36%, 89%, and 93% pondweed control, respectively. Rough rice yields ranged from 107% to 124% in herbicide-treated plots compared with the nontreated plots. Soil-applied herbicide treatments produced higher (≥119%) yield than the hand-weeded control or foliar-applied herbicides. Pondweed regrowth was affected by herbicides and was variable. Soil-applied residual herbicides metazosulfuron, flucetosulfuron, and metsulfuron provided complete control of pondweed and prevented regrowth. In contrast, pondweed regrowth in other soil- and foliar-applied herbicide treatments occurred, indicating their lesser translocation to underground vegetative rhizomes. This study shows that although most sulfonylurea herbicides can control pondweed effectively to achieve high rough rice yield, only a few soil-applied herbicides were able to prevent pondweed regrowth.
Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) junglerice is a challenging task in eastern Australia. There is limited information on the efficacy and reliability of alternate herbicides for GR populations of junglerice, especially when targeting large plants and when temperatures are high. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm the level of glyphosate resistance in three populations of junglerice and to evaluate the efficacy of alternate herbicides for the control of GR junglerice populations. The LD50 of glyphosate of B17/7, B17/34, and B17/35 populations was found to be 298, 2,260, and 1,715 g ae ha–1, respectively, suggesting that populations B17/34 and B17/35 were highly resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate efficacy was reduced at high-temperature (35 C day/25 C night) compared with low-temperature conditions (25 C day/15 C night), suggesting that control of susceptible populations may also be reduced if glyphosate is sprayed under hot conditions. Preemergence herbicides dimethenamid-P (1,000 g ai ha–1) and pendimethalin (1,500 g ai ha–1) provided 100% control of GR populations (B17/34 and 17/35). Postemergence herbicides, such as clethodim (60 or 90 g ai ha–1), glufosinate (750 g ai ha–1), haloxyfop (52 or 78 g ai ha–1), and paraquat (400 or 600 g ai ha–1), applied at the four-leaf stage provided 100% control of GR populations. For larger junglerice plants (eight-leaf stage), postemergence applications of paraquat (400 or 600 g ai ha–1) provided greater weed control than clethodim, glufosinate, and haloxyfop. A mixture of either glufosinate or haloxyfop with glyphosate provided poor control of GR junglerice populations compared with application of glufosinate or haloxyfop applied alone. Efficacy of glufosinate and haloxyfop for the control of GR populations decreased when applied in the sequential spray after glyphosate application. This study identified alternative herbicide options for GR junglerice populations that can be used in herbicide rotation programs for sustainable weed management.
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) is a widespread weed of the southeastern cropping region of Australia. Seed germination ecology of S. arvensis populations selected from different climatic regions may differ due to adaptative traits. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, light, radiant heat, soil moisture, salt concentration, and burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of two populations (Queensland [Qld] population: tropical region; and Victoria [Vic] population: temperate region) of S. arvensis. Both populations germinated over a wide range of day/night (12-h/12-h) temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), and had the highest germination at 30/20 C. Under complete darkness, the Qld population (61%) had higher germination than the Vic population (21%); however, under the light/dark regime, both populations had similar germination (78% to 86%). At 100 C pretreatment for 5 min, the Qld population (44%) had higher germination than the Vic population (13%). Germination of both populations was nil when given pretreatment at 150 and 200 C. The Vic population was found tolerant to high osmotic and salt stress compared with the Qld population. At an osmotic potential of −0.4 MPa, germination of Qld and Vic populations was reduced by 85% and 42%, respectively, compared with their respective controls. At 40, 80, and 160 mM sodium chloride, germination was lower for the Qld population than the Vic population. Averaged over the populations, seedling emergence was highest (52%) from a burial depth of 1 cm and was nil from 8-cm depth. Differential germination behaviors of both populations to temperature, light, radiant heat, water stress, and salt stress suggest that populations of S. arvensis may have undergone differential adaptation. Knowledge gained from this study will assist in developing suitable control measures for this weed species to reduce the soil seedbank.
Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker] is an emerging weed in the Australian cropping region. Populations resistant to glyphosate have evolved in Australia, creating the demand for information regarding the seed germination ecology of glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) populations of C. sumatrensis. A study was conducted to examine the effects of temperature, light intensity, salt stress, osmotic stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of two populations (R and S) of C. sumatrensis. Both populations were able to germinate over a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C). In light/dark conditions, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 20/10 and 35/25 C. In the dark, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 25/15 C. In the dark, germination was inhibited at 30/20 C and above. Averaged over populations, seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 97% at zero light intensity (completely dark conditions) compared with full light intensity. Seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 17% and 85% at osmotic potentials of −0.4, and −0.8 MPa, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The R population had lower germination (57%) than the S population (72%) at a sodium chloride concentration of 80 mM. Seed germination was highest on the soil surface and emergence was reduced by 87% and 90% at burial depths of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively. Knowledge gained from this study suggests that a shallow-tillage operation to bury weed seeds in conventional tillage systems and retention of high residue cover on the soil surface in zero-till systems may inhibit the germination of C. sumatrensis. This study also warrants that the R population may have a greater risk of invasion over a greater part of a year due to germination over a broader temperature range.
XtendFlexTM cotton with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba may become available in Australia. Resistance to these herbicides enables two additional modes of action to be applied in crop. The double-knock strategy, typically glyphosate followed by paraquat, has been a successful tactic for control of glyphosate-resistant cotton in fallow situations in Australia. Glufosinate is a contact herbicide and may be useful as the second herbicide in a double knock for use in XtendFlexTM cotton crops. We tested the effectiveness of glufosinate applied at intervals of 1, 3, 7, and 10 d after initial applications of glyphosate, dicamba, clethodim, and glyphosate mixtures with dicamba or clethodim on glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible populations of flaxleaf fleabane, common sowthistle, feather fingergrass, windmill grass, and junglerice. Effective treatments for flaxleaf fleabane with 100% control were dicamba and glyphosate+dicamba followed by glufosinate independent of the interval between applications. Common sowthistle was effectively controlled in Experiment 1 by all treatments. However, in Experiment 2, effective treatments were dicamba and glyphosate+dicamba followed by glufosinate (99.3% to 100% control). Timing of the follow-up glufosinate did not affect the control achieved. Consistent control of feather fingergrass was achieved with glyphosate, clethodim, or glyphosate+clethodim followed by glufosinate at 7-d and 10-d intervals (99.7% to 100% control). Control of feather fingergrass was inconsistent. The best treatment for windmill grass was glyphosate+clethodim followed by glufosinate 10 d later (99.8% to 100% control). Junglerice was effectively controlled with all treatments except for glyphosate on the glyphosate-resistant population. Additional in-crop use of glufosinate and dicamba should be beneficial for weed management in XtendFlexTM cotton crops, when using the double knock tactic with glufosinate. For effective herbicide resistance management, it is important that these herbicides be used in addition to, rather than substitution for, existing weed management tactics.
African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan) is a problematic winter annual weed in Australia. Germination ecology of B. tournefortii may change in response to the maternal environments or habitats in which the plants grow. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of four populations of B. tournefortii that were collected from different fields. Averaged over populations, germination was stimulated by dark and was higher at 25/15 C (92%) compared with 15/5 C (76%) and 35/25 C (45%). Averaged over light/dark regimes, at the lowest temperature regime (15/5 C), population A had higher germination than population D; however, at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C), population D had higher germination than population A. Populations B and C had higher germination in the temperature range of 25/15 C and 30/20 C compared with 15/5 C, 20/10 C, and 35/25 C. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), suggesting that seeds can germinate throughout the year if other optimum conditions are available. Population A was more tolerant to water and salt stress than population D. The sodium chloride concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% germination of population A were 68 mM and −0.60 MPa, respectively. Averaged over populations, seeds placed at 1-cm soil depth had the highest emergence (54%), and burial depth of 8 cm resulted in 28% seedling emergence. Averaged over populations, wheat residue retention at 6,000 kg ha−1 resulted in greater seedling emergence than the residue amount of 1,000 kg ha−1. The results suggest that B. tournefortii will be favored in no-till systems and that the seedbank of B. tournefortii could be managed by tillage regimes that bury its seeds below 8-cm depths and restrict seedling emergence and growth of new plants.
Prevalence of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and sterile oat [Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne; referred to as A. sterilis hereafter], winter-season weeds, is increasing in the eastern grain region of Australia. Biological attributes of these weeds enable them to survive in a wide range of environments and under different weed infestation levels. The interference of A. fatua and A. sterilis in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop was examined in southeast Queensland, Australia, through field studies in 2019 and 2020. Different infestation levels (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 plants m−2) of A. fatua and A. sterilis were evaluated for their potential to cause yield losses in wheat. Based on a three-parameter logarithmic model, the A. fatua and A. sterilis infestation levels corresponding to 50% wheat yield loss were 15 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. The yield reduction was due to a reduced spike number per unit area because of an increased weed infestation level. At the highest weed infestation level (48 plants m−2), A. fatua and A. sterilis produced a maximum of 4,800 and 3,970 seeds m−2, respectively. Avena fatua exhibited lower seed retention (17% to 39%) than A. sterilis (64% to 80%) at wheat harvest, as most of the seeds of A. fatua had shattered at crop maturity. Our results implied that there is a good opportunity for harvest weed seed control if the paddock is infested with A. sterilis. This study suggests that in the absence of an integrated weed management strategy (using both chemical and nonchemical options), a high infestation of these weeds could cause a severe crop yield loss, increase weed seed production, and replenish the weed seedbank in the soil.
In Australia, glyphosate is widely used in glyphosate-tolerant crops and fallows to control weeds such as common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). It has been hypothesized that glyphosate at sublethal doses, as a consequence of herbicide drift, may have a stimulatory effect on S. oleraceus growth. In 2017, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of low doses of glyphosate on growth and seed production of this weed at the Weed Science Screenhouse Facility at the University of Queensland, Australia. At the 4- to 5-leaf stage (3-wk-old rosette), plants were treated with low doses of glyphosate (0 [control], 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 800 g ae ha−1), and their responses were recorded until plant maturity. The study was repeated after completion of the first experimental run. An additional glyphosate dose (2.5 g ha−1) was added in the second run. The low doses of glyphosate (<40 g ha−1) caused a significant increase in S. oleraceus plant height and number of leaves compared with the no-glyphosate treatment. The highest stimulatory effect was observed at 5 g ha−1. At 5 g ha−1 glyphosate, S. oleraceus seed production increased by 154% and 101% in the first and second experimental runs, respectively, compared with the no-glyphosate treatment. The results of this study suggest that the sublethal doses of glyphosate produced hormetic effects on growth and seed production of S. oleraceus that changed the dynamics of weed–crop competition.
The growth response of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) to anticipated future climate conditions is currently unknown, and thus two parallel studies were conducted dealing with glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes of S. oleraceus. The glyphosate efficacy study was conducted using different doses of glyphosate (0 [control], 180, 360, 720 [recommended dose], and 1,440 g ae ha−1) at two different moisture levels (well-watered and water-stressed conditions). In the second study, the growth and seed production of these biotypes were studied under different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (450 and 750 ppm) and under well-watered (100% field capacity) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions. Results showed that the GR biotype survived (>68%) at 1,440 g ha−1, but for the GS biotype, no plant survived, and both biotypes were slightly (<10%) affected by moisture regimes. In the elevated CO2 condition, the GS biotype plants were >38% taller and produced >44%, >18%, and >21% more leaves, buds, and seeds, respectively, compared with the ambient CO2 concentration under both moisture regimes. The biomass also increased by 27% in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration. For the GR biotype, plants at the elevated CO2 level, while they also grew 38% taller in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration, the numbers of leaves, buds, and seeds and biomass were not affected by this increase in CO2. Results showed that there were minimal changes in response to glyphosate for GR and GS biotypes of S. oleraceus with or without moisture stress. Our study suggests that future climate change with elevated CO2 levels can affect the response of S. oleraceus to glyphosate, and such knowledge will be helpful for weed management in the future.