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There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Over the last two decades, Frequency Modulation (FM) radio has been established as the only form of sound broadcasting in Ghana. Radio is the most accessible of mass media. There are more than 40 operational radio stations in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Most stations are commercial, broadcasting in the local language (Asante-Twi). Many urban radio health slots discuss various diseases and their treatments mainly for the benefit of patients. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners who are able to pay for airtime dominate as ‘experts’ in most of these shows.
We identified an IEC gap regarding policies governing healthcare delivery, healthcare financing, training, ethics and research, and environmental issues. In June 2015, orthodox medical practitioners collaborated with a private, local, English-speaking radio station to produce and host a weekly health show whose content was aimed at holistically discussing health from the viewpoint of practitioners, clients, policy makers, administrators, and financiers in a simplified language for the general public, including healthcare trainees.
The show dubbed “Staying Alive” first aired on Tuesday, July 7, 2015, at 20:00 GMT and continues to air to date, appealing to a wide range of active listeners. “Staying Alive” to the best of our knowledge remains the only show with a holistic approach to health. Over the last 23 months, we have experienced challenges in sustaining sponsorship to fund the cost of production and airtime for the show, and the cost of effectively assessing the public health impact of the show. Orthodox medical practitioners can employ mass radio as an effective tool for advocacy, information dissemination, and education of clients or health trainees in low or middle-income urban settings through effective collaboration with media stations.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
Illegal killing/taking of birds is a growing concern across the Mediterranean. However, there are few quantitative data on the species and countries involved. We assessed numbers of individual birds of each species killed/taken illegally in each Mediterranean country per year, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. We estimated that 11–36 million individuals per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. In each of Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Lebanon and Syria, more than two million birds may be killed/taken on average each year. For species such as Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, more than one million individuals of each species are estimated to be killed/taken illegally on average every year. Several species of global conservation concern are also reported to be killed/taken illegally in substantial numbers: Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca and Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca. Birds in the Mediterranean are illegally killed/taken primarily for food, sport and for use as cage-birds or decoys. At the 20 worst locations with the highest reported numbers, 7.9 million individuals may be illegally killed/taken per year, representing 34% of the mean estimated annual regional total number of birds illegally killed/taken for all species combined. Our study highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing/taking of birds. Monitoring schemes which use systematic sampling protocols are needed to generate increasingly robust data on trends in illegal killing/taking over time and help stakeholders prioritise conservation actions to address this international conservation problem. Large numbers of birds are also hunted legally in the region, but specific totals are generally unavailable. Such data, in combination with improved estimates for illegal killing/taking, are needed for robustly assessing the sustainability of exploitation of birds.
To describe and compare the mortality associated with nosocomial pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-NP) according to pneumonia classification (community-onset pneumonia [COP], hospital-acquired pneumonia [(HAP], and ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP]).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with Pa-NP. We compared mortality for Pa-NP among patients with COP, HAP, and VAP and used logistic regression to identify risk factors for hospital mortality and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT).
Twelve acute care hospitals in 5 countries (United States, 3; France, 2; Germany, 2; Italy, 2; and Spain, 3).
A total of 742 patients with Pa-NP.
Hospital mortality was greater for those with VAP (41.9%) and HAP (40.1%) compared with COP (24.5%) (P<.001). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors of hospital mortality differed by pneumonia classification (COP: need for mechanical ventilation and intensive care; HAP: multidrug-resistant isolate; VAP: IIAT, increasing age, increasing Charlson comorbidity score, bacteremia, and use of vasopressors). Presence of multidrug resistance was identified as an independent predictor of IIAT for patients with COP and HAP, whereas recent antibiotic administration was protective in patients with VAP.
Among patients with Pa-NP, pneumonia classification identified patients with different risks for hospital mortality. Specific risk factors for hospital mortality also differed by pneumonia classification and multidrug resistance appeared to be an important risk factor for IIAT. These findings suggest that pneumonia classification for P. aeruginosa identifies patients with different mortality risks and specific risk factors for outcome and IIAT.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1190–1197
Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now generated by modern astronomical instruments. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non-astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. Our experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment than SDDs for searching for small targets in large images. They also show that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when employing physical navigation as opposed to virtual navigation, and that the combination of two non-astronomers using a TDW rivals the experience of a single astronomer. However, there is also a large distribution in aptitude amongst the participants and the nature of the content also plays a significant role in success.
Thirty species of Cancellariidae in 11 genera from the Miocene Gatun Formation in the Panama Canal area, Caribbean Panama, are discussed including two species not represented by specimens suitable for formal description. The following 11 species are described as new: Cancellaria harzhauseri n. sp., Cancellaria mixta n. sp., Bivetiella dilatata n. sp., Euclia alacertata n. sp., Pyruclia tweedledum n. sp., Pyruclia tweedledee n. sp., Massyla toulai n. sp., Aphera aphrodite n. sp., Axelella cativa n. sp., Agatrix agathe n. sp., Ventrilia coatesi n. sp. This assemblage of cancellariids is very diverse and highly endemic, with 18 (60 percent) species found only in the Miocene Gatun Formation. These assemblages all lie within the Gatunian Neogene Paciphile Molluscan Unit 1 (GNPMU1).
Twenty four species of Cancellariidae belonging to eleven genera occurring in the Neogene Bocas del Toro assemblages, Caribbean Panama, are discussed and figured. The following seven species are described as new: Cancellaria pilula n. sp., Cancellaria isabelae n. sp., Cancellaria stri n. sp., Cancellaria axelolssoni n. sp., Massyla corpulenta n. sp., Aphera trophis n. sp., Admetula valientensis n. sp. The cancellarid genus Charcolleria Olsson, 1942 is considered a synonym of Massyla H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854. Of the 24 species present in the Bocas del Toro, 12 are known also to occur elsewhere in the tropical American Neogene. This level of endemism is high, but not as high as that reported from other Tropical American Neogene assemblages, probably due to the very central geographic location within the Gatunian Province of the Bocas assemblages.