To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare but bilaterally blinding disease. Three characteristic disease-causing point mutations, and other less common mutations, are most often found on the mitochondrially encoded genes of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunits (MT-ND). The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of LHON mutations in Southwestern Ontario and to describe the associated demographic and clinical characteristics.
A retrospective genetic and clinical chart review was performed from January 2015 to 2020. Patients were identified within a mitochondrial mutation database and included if a mutation was detected on the MT-ND1, -ND4, or -ND6 genes. A clinical chart review was done on all available patients.
Forty-five of 63 patients identified had classic disease-causing mutations (6.7% m.3460G>A, 44.4% m.11778G>A, and 48.9% m.14484T>C). Several of the remaining 18 patients had rare mutations previously documented in association with LHON. Of the 14 patients with clinical charts accessible for review, 12 had symptomatic disease, and all but one had bilateral optic neuropathies. Nine patients had classic LHON mutations and 3 had possible novel mutations; 7 were males; 9 had final visual acuity ≤ 20/200 in at least one eye; and 6 of those had ≤20/400 in both eyes.
This study adds to the literature on LHON in Canada, and specifically Southwestern Ontario. The demographic and clinical data regarding LHON in this geographic location, as well as possible novel disease-causing mutations, provide important information to aid clinicians in recognizing cases of LHON that may otherwise be disregarded.
Retrospective observational study to determine diagnostic yield and utility of genetic testing in children with epilepsy attending the Epilepsy Clinic at Children’s Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada.
Children (birth–18 years) with epilepsy, who were seen in a 10-year period (January 1, 2008–March 31, 2018), were selected using defined inclusion criteria and by combining clinic datasets and laboratory records.
In total, 105 children (52.38% male and 47.61% female) with a variety of seizures were included in the analysis. Developmental delay was documented in the majority (83; 79.04%). Overall, a genetic diagnosis was established in 24 (22.85%) children. The diagnostic yield was highest for whole-exome sequencing (WES), at 35.71%. The yield from microarray was 8.33%. Yields of single-gene testing (18.60%) and targeted multigene panel testing (19.23%) were very similar. Several likely pathogenic and pathogenic variants not previously reported were identified and categorized using ACMG criteria. All diagnosed patients underwent a review of anti-seizure medication management and received counseling on natural history of their disease, possible complications, recurrence risks, and possibilities of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis.
Our study confirms the multiple benefits of detecting a genetic etiology in children with epilepsy. Similar yields in single versus multigene testing underscore the importance of accurate clinical phenotyping. Patients with epilepsy and their caregivers in Ontario would undoubtedly benefit from repatriation of multigene panels and WES to the province.
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that shows a marked genetic predisposition. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed clinical genetic testing by allowing the rapid screen for causative variants in multiple genes. There are currently no NGS-based multigene panel diagnostic tests available for epilepsy as a licensed clinical diagnostic test in Ontario, Canada. Eligible patient samples are sent out of country for testing by commercial laboratories, which incurs significant cost to the public healthcare system.
An expert Working Group of medical geneticists, pediatric neurologists/epileptologists, biochemical geneticists, and clinical molecular geneticists from Ontario was formed by the Laboratories and Genetics Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to develop a programmatic approach to implementing epilepsy panel testing as a provincial service.
The Working Group made several recommendations for testing to support the clinical delivery of care in Ontario. First, an extension of community healthcare outcomes-based program should be incorporated to inform and educate ordering providers when requesting and interpreting a genetic panel test. Second, any gene panel testing must be “evidence-based” and takes into account varied clinical indications to reduce the chance of uncertain and secondary results. Finally, an ongoing evaluative process was recommended to ensure continued test improvement for the future.
This epilepsy panel testing implementation plan will be a model for genetic care directed toward a specific set of conditions in the province and serve as a prototype for genetic testing for other genetically heterogeneous diseases.
Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder causing pathological iron deposition and functional impairment of various organs, predominantly the liver. We assessed patients with HH for the presence of movement disorders. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 616 patients with HH who attended hemochromatosis clinic at London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada, from 1988 to 2015. Results: We found three HH patients with movement disorders, without any other major systemic manifestation. One had parkinsonism, another had chorea, and the third had tremor. All three patients had evidence of iron deposition in the brain, affecting the basal ganglia in the first two, and the dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra in the third patient. In addition to the C282Y homozygous mutation in the HFE gene, two of our patients had non-HFE gene mutations. Conclusion: HH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of movement disorders with pathological brain iron deposition. We report for the first time chorea in a patient with HH. Non-HFE gene mutations may predispose HH patients to iron deposition in the brain.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.