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This article argues that a holistic approach to documenting and understanding the physical evidence for individual cities would enhance our ability to address major questions about urbanisation, urbanism, cultural identities and economic processes. At the same time we suggest that providing more comprehensive data-sets concerning Greek cities would represent an important contribution to cross-cultural studies of urban development and urbanism, which have often overlooked relevant evidence from Classical Greece. As an example of the approach we are advocating, we offer detailed discussion of data from the Archaic and Classical city of Olynthos, in the Halkidiki. Six seasons of fieldwork here by the Olynthos Project, together with legacy data from earlier projects by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and by the Greek Archaeological Service, combine to make this one of the best-documented urban centres surviving from the Greek world. We suggest that the material from the site offers the potential to build up a detailed ‘urban profile’, consisting of an overview of the early development of the community as well as an in-depth picture of the organisation of the Classical settlement. Some aspects of the urban infrastructure can also be quantified, allowing a new assessment of (for example) its demography. This article offers a sample of the kinds of data available and the sorts of questions that can be addressed in constructing such a profile, based on a brief summary of the interim results of fieldwork and data analysis carried out by the Olynthos Project, with a focus on research undertaken during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 seasons.
Geophysics has emerged as a significant and primary tool of archaeological research in Greece. It is no longer marginalized to a supporting role for excavations and pedestrian surveying, but has developed into a fundamental method of investigating layers of cultural heritage in its own right. This can be explained varyingly, from the increasingly holistic nature of archaeological fieldwork, to a broader appreciation of the diverse applications of geophysics to characterize historical contexts, the unique range of site assessment offered by geophysics and the capacity of geophysics to explore the subsurface in challenging conditions. Technology too plays a vital role. New generations of equipment have the ability to map archaeological features in high resolution, in rapid sequence and oftentimes in 3D. Geophysics along with other non-invasive methods, like satellite and airborne remote sensing, has also gained wider traction because of concerns about the costs, impacts and time horizons of traditional fieldwork practices. This brief report highlights some of the recent developments and applications of geophysical survey in Greece. It is not meant to be an inclusive account or an evaluation of each geophysical technique; instead, it emphasizes current trends in this important and expanding field of research and touches upon its future prospects in the country.
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