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Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common congenital malformations. Patients with CHD have a higher morbidity and mortality rate and are at greater risk for infectious diseases. The risk might even be higher if complex CHD occurs and if CHD is associated with additional co-morbidities. Therefore, immunisations in these children are essential.
Materials and Methods:
Individuals were recruited at the outpatient centre of the Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology at the German Heart Center Munich in the time between February 2016 and February 2017. Included were children between 23 months and 17 years and a diagnosis of CHD. The vaccination certificate aimed to assess the immunization status.
In total, 657 children with CHD were included and analysed. Regarding primary immunisation, only 34 % (n = 221) of the children reached the complete vaccination status within the allowed catch-up time. Among these primary immunisation rates, vaccinations against Hepatitis B, Meningococci, Varicella and Pneumococci were found to have the lowest coverage with all being below 80%. The vaccination rate was partly influenced by the previously performed number of surgeries but not by the diagnosis of specific genetic diseases. At the age of school entry, the immunisation rate in children with CHD was also lower than in the comparable healthy population.
The vaccination coverage rate in children with CHD is lower than in comparable healthy children, although this is a vulnerable patient group. Further education of parents and treating physicians of children with CHD regarding vaccination is still needed.
The ‘Wadden Sea Archive of landscape evolution, climate change and settlement history’ project (WASA) focuses on the analysis of marine sediment archives from the East Frisian Wadden Sea region. It aims at understanding the formation of palaeolandscapes since the end of the last ice age. One part of the project studies the possible correlation and shift of archaeological settlement patterns, climate change and sea-level rise through time in order to derive archaeological expectancy maps. In this paper we present our findings for a quantifiable set of Stone Age sites in the area of the prehistorical Dornumer tidal basin, discussing them against the background of coastal environmental factors and the applied methodology of our modelling. To enable spatial analysis of these sites, we developed a palaeographic elevation model, which was subsequently flooded at 2000-year intervals between the Boreal and early Subboreal periods. Particular challenges are posed by the dynamics of marine transgression, the related changes in the natural environment and their spatial extent. As a result of our GIS-based approach, the model can be extended geographically and provides a basis for future research.
During the Great War, the Bulletin International des Sociétés de la Croix Rouge covered the immense work of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (National Societies). This article focuses on one particular angle of that work: the tensions and even contradictions between the ICRC's duty of neutrality and impartiality, on the one hand, and the national and sometimes nationalistic commitments of National Societies, which were naturally opposed to each other in wartime, on the other. While some of the Bulletin’s articles revealed real advances in thought on war and the protection of victims, others reflected the inertia caused by this fundamental contradiction.
Nowadays, there exists an international movement towards the extensive recognition as cultural heritage, or “heritagization”, of areas where wars, genocides and massacres have taken place. The phenomenon of “seeing” mass death, called “dark tourism” or the “tourism of desolation”, has become both an aim and a destination for visitors. The article examines this heritagization, with an emphasis on the memorials of the genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi of Rwanda.
The Great War was globalized and totalized1 by the inclusion of colonial and newly independent people from all over the world and of civilians, old people, women and children. The European war became a laboratory for all the suffering of the century, from the extermination of the Armenians to the refugee crisis, the internments, and the unending modernization of warfare.
The link between war and artistic expression is multi-faceted. All warring nations constructed and destroyed the arts through war and introduced many people to them. Works of art made it possible to follow the fluctuations of the war between front line and home front: from communities in anguish to communities in mourning. Artists were not only mobilised in the passive sense of the term: initially the majority consented actively to the war, seeing it as just and cleansing both at home and on the front line. On every front artists, whether mobilised or enlisted volunteers, found a true source of inspiration in the spectacle of the war. In Zurich, the Dada movement emerged around the Cabaret Voltaire in1915. To some extent the Dadaists needed the war to be born, prosper and die, but they could not admit this and their private mobilisation was their commitment to demobilisation from the war.
The Great War was a laboratory for the twentieth century: an experimental site to probe the practice of violence and to optimise its effects on men and materials. Concentration camps for civilians were part of the regular arsenal of the world war. The concentration camps of the Great War, generalising and multiplying those of the two colonial episodes of Cuba and South Africa, were innovative: henceforward civilians were also ordinary victims of war en route towards totalisation. With the internal rearrangements of empires in the course of the war, certain population movements took the tragic form of forced homogenisation, which amounted to major social or ethnic reconstruction. This applied to populations considered suspect in Russia, and to the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire. The inhabitants of regions that were invaded and then occupied by enemy armies formed a category of civilian prisoners who suffered different forms of alienation and internment.
A new technique for micropatterning Fe-based bulk metallic glass surfaces is reported. The transpassive dissolution process is utilized for a defined localized material removal when using a pulsed electrochemical micromachining process. By applying submicrosecond pulses between a work piece and a tool electrode, microholes of high aspect ratio and depth of up to 100 μm can be machined into the bulk glassy Fe65.5Cr4Mo4Ga4P12C5B5.5 alloy. Two potential electrolytes are identified for the machining process. For these electrolytes, different reaction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility of machining more complex structures is demonstrated for the most promising electrolyte, a methanolic H2SO4solution. The impact of the process parameters, pulse length and pulse voltage, on the machining gap and the surface quality of the machined structures is evaluated.
Advances in the law of Geneva and the law of The Hague did not remain a dead letter during the World War I, but this was essentially with regard to the wounded and prisoners of war. Those categories of persons were better protected than civilians by treaty-based humanitarian law, which was still in its infancy. Although the ideal of humanity was realized on a large scale thanks to the efforts of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and myriad other charitable, denominational, or non-denominational organizations, none of the belligerents hesitated to infringe and violate the law whenever they could. The various occupied populations, on the Western and Eastern fronts and in the Balkans, served as their guinea pigs and were their perfect victims.
In The Old Regime and the French Revolution (1856), Alexis de Tocqueville described the French as a people “talented enough at anything, but who excel only at war. They adore chance, force, success, flash and noise, more than true glory. More capable of heroism than virtue, of genius more than good sense, they are suited more to conceiving immense plans than to completing great enterprises.” Up to a point, Tocqueville knew his compatriots well. Over the course of the nineteenth century, France had gone to war many times and, in general, had fared poorly at it. The French had mainly themselves to blame. The century began in a blaze of Napoleonic glory, followed by complete national defeat in 1815. Not that this prevented the French from erecting to Napoleon their greatest military monument, the Arc du Triomphe, an unusual tribute to a defeated commander. Some victories came at mid-century, against the Russians in the Crimean War of 1853–6, and against the Habsburg Monarchy in Italy in 1859. Yet these were classic nineteenth-century “limited” wars, in which France ventured and gained relatively little. But the “immense plan” of Emperor Napoleon III (allegedly the illegitimate nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) to install his protégé, Archduke Maximilian (the brother of Habsburg Emperor Francis Joseph), as emperor of Mexico in 1861 ended in utter failure. France had nothing to show for it but the famous 1867 painting by Édouard Manet of Maximilian's execution by Mexican patriots.
France and the Great War tells the story of how the French community embarked upon, sustained, and in some ways prevailed in the Great War. In this 2003 book, Leonard Smith and his co-authors synthesize many years of scholarship, examining the origins of the war from a diplomatic and military viewpoint, before shifting their emphasis to socio-cultural and economic history when discussing the civilian and military war culture. They look at the 'total' mobilization of the French national community, as well as the military and civilian crises of 1917, and the ambiguous victory of 1918. The book concludes by revealing how traces of the Great War can still be found in the political and cultural life of the French national community. This lively, accessible and engaging book will be of enormous value to students of the Great War.
As France celebrated its triumph and continued to mourn its sacrifice in the victory parade of 1919 and the burial of the Unknown Soldier in 1920, it appeared as though the nation and the Third Republic had not only survived its supreme test, but had emerged from it stronger than ever. Alsace and Lorraine had again become wholly French. Through much of the interwar period, France had the most feared army in Europe. At least in terms of shaded areas on a map, the French Empire attained its zenith between the wars, through territories acquired with the breakup of the Ottoman Empire and the distribution of the German colonies in Africa and the Pacific. The German enemy lay disarmed and paying reparations to the victors.
Yet the limits of the bitter peace made at Versailles became clear within a few years. With the United States pointedly abstaining from postwar security arrangements in Europe, with Britain again holding affairs on the continent at arm's length, with the Soviet Union banned from the family of nations, and with Eastern Europe weak, embittered, and troubled, victorious France faced the future created at Versailles remarkably alone. The peace came to rest on a bluff – that Germany would accept defeat, disarmament, and reparations indefinitely, without an effective enforcement mechanism on the part of the Allies. The Versailles treaty had sought to delegitimize the enemy, as the party solely responsible for the war.