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Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
This case describes the prenatal diagnosis and integrated peripartum management of a foetus with 2:1 atrioventricular block and torsade de pointes due to congenital long QT syndrome. The unique issues related to the detection of intrauterine conduction abnormalities and ventricular arrhythmias, along with the immediate postnatal care, have been described as an interesting teaching case with successful outcome.
Since its formation at the XXVI General Assembly in Prague in 2006, amazing progress has been made by Commission 55, all due to the work of the key activists and enthusiasts. The web-page for the Commission contains a wealth of information and is one of the key foundations and tools for the Commission. The web address is http://www.communicatingastronomy.org
We describe the electrophysiological studies undertaken in four patients with atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia in the setting of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterial connections (transposition). Radiofrequency ablation was attempted in three, all with success. Clear evidence of dual antegrade pathways through the atrioventricular node was present in only one of the four, but other characteristics of discrete fast and slow pathways into the atrioventricular node were present in all. Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia was inducible in all. In the three patients in whom ablation was attempted, the application of radiofrequency energy to the low medial regions of the systemic venous atrium (morphologically left) consistently caused junctional accelerated rhythm, but these lesions were not successful in eliminating the tachycardia. Successful radiofrequency ablation required a retrograde approach to the region of the slow pathway in the pulmonary venous atrium (morphologically right).
The objective of this study was to determine whether adult day service use was related to decreases in primary caregiving hours (i.e., the time caregivers spent on activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living and behavior problems for care recipients) and care recipient function for these domains. Three-month longitudinal data from the Adult Day Care Collaborative Study (N = 400) were used. Adult day service users reported greater decreases in hours spent on behavior problems when compared to nonusers, even after controlling for baseline differences between the two groups. In addition, adult day service users reported decreased frequency of behavior problems in their relatives who attended adult day programs. The findings suggest that adult day services, if used over time, are effective in restructuring caregiving time and may offer potential benefits not only to family caregivers but to community-residing older adults who have dementia as well.
A fast screening technique is used to study the ALD HfO2 growth behavior on different types of starting surfaces (H-passivated, chemical oxide, thermal oxide). The amount of Hf deposited at the early stages of the ALD process is measured by means of RBS. The HfO2 film quality on different starting surfaces is examined with ToFSIMS. The results suggest an island growth mechanism on a H-terminated starting surface: nucleation, development of separated nuclei and flattening. It is shown that ALD growth starts faster if –OH groups are present on the surface. A remote H2 plasma surface pre-treatment at room temperature is also studied. The influence of the plasma exposure time and number of water pulses prior to HfO2 deposition was examined. The H2 plasma surface pre-treatment can be considered as a promising candidate for sub 1 nm EOT performance.
This chapter outlines why a geographical perspective on poverty and wealth is important and presents selected evidence on changes and continuities in poverty and wealth at the local level in Britain between 1981 and 1991.
During the 1980s poverty emerged as an increasingly more significant issue for public debate in Britain, throughout Europe and in North America. While a substantial proportion of the population emerged as winners from the economic and social transformations of the 1980s – with rising living standards and incomes – concerns grew that the losers – particularly when spatially concentrated – may become ‘dislocated’ from mainstream social norms and values, and moreover pose a threat to public order.
Key features of the restructuring in the economic, social and political arenas during the 1980s include the shift in jobs from manufacturing to services, a new emphasis on ‘individualism’ as the ‘enterprise culture’ was actively promoted, and ‘deformalisation’ and ‘deregularisation’ of the economy – accompanied by a growth in the use of more ‘flexible’ employment relationships (Gregson and Robinson, 1989; Room, 1990; Cross, 1993; Green, 1993; Silver, 1993). These processes were instrumental in increasing polarisation in the structure of the labour market between the privileged on the one hand – mainly working in high wage non-manual jobs; and the underprivileged rest on the other – engaged in part-time, generally low wage jobs, or unemployed (Buck, 1992; Gaffikin and Morrisey, 1992).
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