To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine compared to placebo over 12-week follow-up.
Economic evaluation in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of mirtazapine vs. placebo.
Community settings and care homes in 26 UK centers.
People with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease and agitation.
Primary outcome included incremental cost of participants’ health and social care per 6-point difference in CMAI score at 12 weeks. Secondary cost-utility analyses examined participants’ and unpaid carers’ gain in quality-adjusted life years (derived from EQ-5D-5L, DEMQOL-Proxy-U, and DEMQOL-U) from the health and social care and societal perspectives.
One hundred and two participants were allocated to each group; 81 mirtazapine and 90 placebo participants completed a 12-week assessment (87 and 95, respectively, completed a 6-week assessment). Mirtazapine and placebo groups did not differ on mean CMAI scores or health and social care costs over the study period, before or after adjustment for center and living arrangement (independent living/care home). On the primary outcome, neither mirtazapine nor placebo could be considered a cost-effective strategy with a high level of confidence. Groups did not differ in terms of participant self- or proxy-rated or carer self-rated quality of life scores, health and social care or societal costs, before or after adjustment.
On cost-effectiveness grounds, the use of mirtazapine cannot be recommended for agitated behaviors in people living with dementia. Effective and cost-effective medications for agitation in dementia remain to be identified in cases where non-pharmacological strategies for managing agitation have been unsuccessful.
Evidence on the impact of the pandemic on healthcare presentations for self-harm has accumulated rapidly. However, existing reviews do not include studies published beyond 2020.
To systematically review evidence on presentations to health services following self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A comprehensive search of databases (WHO COVID-19 database; Medline; medRxiv; Scopus; PsyRxiv; SocArXiv; bioRxiv; COVID-19 Open Research Dataset, PubMed) was conducted. Studies published from 1 January 2020 to 7 September 2021 were included. Study quality was assessed with a critical appraisal tool.
Fifty-one studies were included: 57% (29/51) were rated as ‘low’ quality, 31% (16/51) as ‘moderate’ and 12% (6/51) as ‘high-moderate’. Most evidence (84%, 43/51) was from high-income countries. A total of 47% (24/51) of studies reported reductions in presentation frequency, including all six rated as high-moderate quality, which reported reductions of 17–56%. Settings treating higher lethality self-harm were overrepresented among studies reporting increased demand. Two of the three higher-quality studies including study observation months from 2021 reported reductions in self-harm presentations. Evidence from 2021 suggests increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls.
Sustained reductions in numbers of self-harm presentations were seen into the first half of 2021, although this evidence is based on a relatively small number of higher-quality studies. Evidence from low- and middle-income countries is lacking. Increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls, into 2021 is concerning. Findings may reflect changes in thresholds for help-seeking, use of alternative sources of support and variable effects of the pandemic across groups.
A beneficial environment is of utmost importance for the well-being of people with dementia. This environment comprises different aspects and levels. We start the chapter with a discussion on the importance of relationship-centred care, as a more holistic alternative to person-centred care. One way to put this concept into practice, is by using the ‘Senses Framework’. We continue with a description of how architecture can be favourable for people with dementia by taking them into account as social beings within their cultural context. In this way architecture is more about creating a proper environment for continuing daily activities and social interaction. We subsequently elaborate on dementia-friendly communities, where persons with dementia can navigate, feel safe and maintain their social networks. Singapore is used as a case study. Importantly, technology and the “virtual” environment is taking up more and more place in our existence, and expands our natural environment. This provides us with a whole new range of possibilities for assessment and assistance in dementia. We conclude with the example of nighttime agitation, where different aspects of the social and physical environment (architecture, care, technology) interrelate with this core symptom of dementia.
Negative emotionality (NE) was evaluated as a candidate mechanism linking prenatal maternal affective symptoms and offspring internalizing problems during the preschool/early school age period. The participants were 335 mother–infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project. A Confirmatory Bifactor Analysis (CFA) based on self-report measures of prenatal depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety generated a general factor representing overlapping symptoms of prenatal maternal psychopathology and four distinct symptom factors representing pregnancy-specific anxiety, negative affect, anhedonia and somatization. NE was rated by the mother at 18 and 36 months. CFA based on measures of father, mother, child-rated measures and a semistructured interview generated a general internalizing factor representing overlapping symptoms of child internalizing psychopathology accounting for the unique contribution of each informant. Path analyses revealed significant relationships among the general maternal affective psychopathology, the pregnancy- specific anxiety, and the child internalizing factors. Child NE mediated only the relationship between pregnancy-specific anxiety and the child internalizing factors. We highlighted the conditions in which prenatal maternal affective symptoms predicts child internalizing problems emerging early in development, including consideration of different mechanistic pathways for different maternal prenatal symptom presentations and child temperament.
Given the growing use of Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods across all aspects of environmental sciences, it is imperative that we initiate a discussion about the ethical and responsible use of AI. In fact, much can be learned from other domains where AI was introduced, often with the best of intentions, yet often led to unintended societal consequences, such as hard coding racial bias in the criminal justice system or increasing economic inequality through the financial system. A common misconception is that the environmental sciences are immune to such unintended consequences when AI is being used, as most data come from observations, and AI algorithms are based on mathematical formulas, which are often seen as objective. In this article, we argue the opposite can be the case. Using specific examples, we demonstrate many ways in which the use of AI can introduce similar consequences in the environmental sciences. This article will stimulate discussion and research efforts in this direction. As a community, we should avoid repeating any foreseeable mistakes made in other domains through the introduction of AI. In fact, with proper precautions, AI can be a great tool to help reduce climate and environmental injustice. We primarily focus on weather and climate examples but the conclusions apply broadly across the environmental sciences.
There is evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected mental health, but most studies have been conducted in the general population.
To identify factors associated with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with pre-existing mental illness.
Participants (N = 2869, 78% women, ages 18–94 years) from a UK cohort (the National Centre for Mental Health) with a history of mental illness completed a cross-sectional online survey in June to August 2020. Mental health assessments were the GAD-7 (anxiety), PHQ-9 (depression) and WHO-5 (well-being) questionnaires, and a self-report question on whether their mental health had changed during the pandemic. Regressions examined associations between mental health outcomes and hypothesised risk factors. Secondary analyses examined associations between specific mental health diagnoses and mental health.
A total of 60% of participants reported that mental health had worsened during the pandemic. Younger age, difficulty accessing mental health services, low income, income affected by COVID-19, worry about COVID-19, reduced sleep and increased alcohol/drug use were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and reduced well-being. Feeling socially supported by friends/family/services was associated with better mental health and well-being. Participants with a history of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or eating disorder were more likely to report that mental health had worsened during the pandemic than individuals without a history of these diagnoses.
We identified factors associated with worse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with pre-existing mental illness, in addition to specific groups potentially at elevated risk of poor mental health during the pandemic.
Perinatal self-harm is of concern but poorly understood.
To determine if women's risk of self-harm changes in pregnancy and the first postpartum year, and if risk varies by mental illness, age and birth outcome.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 2 666 088 women aged 15–45 years from the 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2017 linked to 1 102 040 pregnancies and their outcomes, utilising the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Pregnancy Register. We identified self-harm events and mental illness (depression/anxiety/addiction/affective/non-affective psychosis/eating/personality disorders) from clinical records and grouped women's age into 5-year bands. They calculated the rate of self-harm during discrete non-perinatal, pregnant and postpartum periods. We used a gap-time, stratified Cox model to manage multiple self-harm events, and calculated the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (adjHR) of self-harm associated with pregnancy and the postpartum compared with non-perinatal periods. Pre-planned interactions tested if risk varied by mental illness, age and birth outcome.
The analysis included 57 791 self-harm events and 14 712 319 person-years of follow-up. The risk of self-harm shrank in pregnancy (2.07 v. 4.01 events/1000 person-years, adjHR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.49–0.58) for all women except for 15- to 19-year-olds (adjHR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.84–1.07) and the risk reduced most for women with mental illness (adjHR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.36–0.44). Postpartum, self-harm risk peaked at 6–12 months (adjHR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15), at-risk groups included young women and women with a pregnancy loss or termination.
Maternity and perinatal mental health services are valuable. Family planning services might have psychological benefit, particularly for young women.
Little is known about mental health problems of children and young people (CYP) involved with public and private law family court proceedings, and how these CYP fare compared to those not involved in these significant disruptions to family life.
This study examined records of depression/anxiety in CYP involved in public and private law proceedings using linked population-level data across Wales.
Retrospective e-cohort study. We calculated the incidence of primary-care-recorded depression/anxiety among CYP involved in these proceedings and in a comparison group, using Poisson regression. Depression/anxiety outcomes following proceedings were evaluated using pairwise Cox regression, with age- and gender-matched controls of CYP who had no involvement with the courts.
CYP in the public group had twice the risk of depression (adjusted incidence rate ratio aIRR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.9–2.6) and 20% higher risk of anxiety (aIRR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.0–1.5) relative to the comparison group. The private group had 60% higher risk of depression (aIRR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.4–1.7) and 30% higher risk of anxiety (aIRR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.2–1.4). Following private law proceedings, CYP were more likely to have depression (hazard ratio HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.7–2.1), and anxiety (HR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2–1.6) than the control group. Following public proceedings, CYP were more likely to have depression (HR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.7–2.5). Incidence of anxiety or depression following court proceedings was around 4%.
Findings highlight the vulnerability of CYP involved in family court proceedings and increased risk of depression and anxiety. Schools, health professionals, social and family support workers have a role to play in identifying needs and ensuring CYP receive appropriate support before, during and after proceedings.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and ensuing restrictions have negatively affected the mental health and well-being of the general population, and there is increasing evidence suggesting that lockdowns have led to a disruption of health services. In March 2020, South Africa introduced a lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, entailing the suspension of all non-essential activities and a complete ban of tobacco and alcohol sales. We studied the effect of the lockdown on mental health care utilisation rates in private-sector care in South Africa.
We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis using insurance claims from 1 January 2017 to 1 June 2020 of beneficiaries 18 years or older from a large private sector medical insurance scheme. We calculated weekly outpatient consultation and hospital admission rates for organic mental disorders, substance use disorders, serious mental disorders, depression, anxiety, other mental disorders, any mental disorder and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the effect of the lockdown on weekly outpatient consultation and hospital admission rates and the weekly change in rates during the lockdown until 1 June 2020.
710 367 persons were followed up for a median of 153 weeks. Hospital admission rates (OR 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.44) and outpatient consultation rates (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.63–0.87) for any mental disorder decreased substantially after the introduction of the lockdown and did not recover to pre-lockdown levels by 1 June 2020. Health care utilisation rates for alcohol withdrawal syndrome doubled after the introduction of the lockdown, but the statistical uncertainty around the estimates was large (OR 2.24; 95% CI 0.69–7.24).
Mental health care utilisation rates for inpatient and outpatient services decreased substantially after the introduction of the lockdown. Hospital admissions and outpatient consultations for alcohol withdrawal syndrome increased after the introduction of the lockdown, but statistical uncertainty precludes strong conclusions about a potential unintended effect of the alcohol sales ban. Governments should integrate strategies for ensuring access and continuity of essential mental health services during lockdowns in pandemic preparedness planning.
Extrapolation is often required to inform cost-effectiveness (CE) evaluations of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) since survival data from pivotal clinical trials are seldom complete. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of estimates of long-term overall survival (OS) predicted in French CE assessment reports of ICIs, and to identify models presenting the best fit to the observed long-term survival data.
A systematic review of French assessment reports of ICIs in the metastatic setting since inception until May 2020 was performed. A targeted literature review was conducted to collect associated extended follow-up of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) used in the CE assessment reports. Difference between projected and observed OS was calculated. A range of standard parametric and spline-based models were applied to the extended follow-up data from the RCT to determine the best-fitting survival models.
Of the 121 CE assessment reports published, 11 reports met the inclusion criteria. OS was underestimated in 73 percent of the CE assessment reports. The mean relative difference between each source was −13 percent (median: −15 percent; IQR: −0.4 to 26 percent). Models providing the best fit were those that could reflect nonmonotonic hazards.
Based on the available data at the time of submission, longer-term survival of ICIs was not fully captured by the extrapolation models used in CE assessments. Standard and flexible parametric models which can capture nonmonotonic hazard functions provided the best fit to the extended follow-up data. However, these models may still have performed poorly if fitted to survival data available at the time of submission to the French National Authority for Health.
Climate change is causing the geographical ranges of some species to track suitable conditions. Habitat specialists, range-restricted species and species with limited dispersal abilities may be unable to track changing conditions, increasing their extinction risk. In response to changing conditions and species movement patterns, there is a need to account for the effects of climate change when designing protected areas and identifying potential climate refugia. We used ecological niche models projected into future climates to identify potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of 11 rupicolous reptile species in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Lygodactylus incognitus, Lygodactylus soutpansbergensis, Platysaurus relictus and Vhembelacerta rupicola were identified as being vulnerable to climate change due to substantial reductions in suitable habitat and low spatial overlap between current and future niche envelopes. We identified areas of high conservation importance for the persistence of these species under present-day and projected future conditions. The western Soutpansberg was identified as an area of high conservation priority as it is a potential refuge under future projections. Projecting distributions of vulnerable species into future climate predictions can guide future research and identify potential refugia that will best conserve species with restricted ranges in a world with climate change.
The impact of dietary phosphorus on chronic renal disease in cats, humans and other species is receiving increasing attention. As Ca and P metabolism are linked, the ratio of Ca:P is an important factor for consideration when formulating diets for cats and other animals. Here, we describe a fully randomised crossover study including twenty-four healthy, neutered adult cats, investigating postprandial responses in plasma P, ionised Ca and parathyroid hormone (PTH) following one meal (50 % of individual metabolic energy requirement) of each of six experimental diets. Diets were formulated to provide P at either 0·75 or 1·5 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) from the soluble phosphorus salt sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, Na5P3O10), variable levels of organic Ca and P sources, and an intended total Ca:P of about 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0. For each experimental diet, baseline fasted blood samples were collected prior to the meal, and serial blood samples collected hourly for 6 h thereafter. For all diets, a significant increase from baseline was observed at 120 min in plasma PTH (P < 0·001). The diet containing the highest STPP inclusion level and lowest Ca:P induced the highest peaks in postprandial plasma P and PTH levels (1·8 mmol/l and 27·2 pg/ml, respectively), and the longest duration of concentrations raised above baseline were observed at 3 h for P and 6 h for PTH. Data indicate that Ca:P modulates postprandial plasma P and PTH. Therefore, when formulating diets containing soluble P salts for cats, increasing the Ca:P ratio should be considered.
Oxyurid nematodes (Syphacia spp.) from bank (Myodes glareolus) and field/common (Microtus spp.) voles, from disparate geographical sites in the British Isles, were examined morphologically and genetically. The genetic signatures of 118 new isolates are provided, based primarily on the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and for representative isolates also on the small subunit 18S rDNA region and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene locus. Genetic data on worms recovered from Microtus spp. from the European mainland and from other rodent genera from the Palaearctic, North America and West Africa are also included. We test historical hypotheses indicating that S. nigeriana is a generalist species, infecting a range of different rodent genera. Our results establish that S. nigeriana is a parasite of both bank and field voles in the British Isles. An identical genotype was also recorded from Hubert's multimammate mouse (Mastomys huberti) from Senegal, but Mastomys spp. from West Africa were additionally parasitized by a related, although genetically distinct Syphacia species. We found no evidence for S. petrusewiczi in voles from the British Isles but isolates from Russia and North America were genetically distinct and formed their own separate deep branch in maximum likelihood molecular phylogenetic trees.
Dithiopyr and dinitroanilines are preemergence-applied, mitotic-inhibiting herbicides used to control goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] in turfgrass. A suspected resistant E. indica population was collected from a golf course putting green and was evaluated for possible resistance to dithiopyr and prodiamine. After dose–response evaluation, the α-tubulin gene was sequenced for known target-site mutations that have been reported to confer resistance to mitotic-inhibiting herbicides. A mutation was discovered that resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 136 from leucine to phenylalanine (Leu-136-Phe). Previous research has indicated that Leu-136-Phe does confer resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. The level of resistance indicated by regression models and I50 values indicates that there is 54.1-, 4.7-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on seedling emergence response and 88.4-, 7.8-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on biomass reduction response. This is the first report of less resistance to prodiamine compared with pendimethalin or oryzalin due to a target-site α-tubulin mutation and the first report of a target-site α-tubulin mutation associated with dithiopyr resistance.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose–response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens’ eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for ‘real-world’ cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D’s importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.