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This article reviews current evidence on the use of coercive measures, including seclusion and restraint, in psychiatric in-patient settings in Europe. There is a particular focus on evidence regarding the use of mechanical restraint. The review seeks to describe when the use of restrictive interventions such as restraint may be necessary, to explore the use of restraint in certain specialist settings and to investigate current laws and European policies on seclusion and restraint. The current rates of restraint in European psychiatric settings are explored, with a discussion of the limitations of the evidence currently available. The article discusses various consequences of seclusion and restraint, potential alternatives to their use and strategies to minimise their use and harm to patients. The use of coercive measures from an international context is considered, to provide context.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
About 85% of women experience some type of postpartum mood disturbance. Generally, the symptoms are mild and short-lived, but a minority of women develop depressive illness or sudden psychosis. About half of episodes of apparently postnatal depression start during pregnancy and some seemingly postpartum psychoses start before delivery. Untreated antenatal depression can lead to poor obstetric outcomes, subsequent depression in the mother, and developmental disadvantage and depression later in life in the offspring. In this article we discuss the aetiology of perinatal depression and consider recommended pharmaceutical and psychosocial management of postpartum blues, perinatal depression and postpartum psychosis.
Alterations of the glucocorticoid system and of hippocampal volumes have consistently been reported in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of glucocorticoid inducible genes is associated with changes in the cornu ammonis (CA) and dentate gyrus subfields. Forty-three patients with MDD and 43 healthy controls were recruited and investigated with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Hippocampal subfields were measured using freesurfer. Measurement of whole blood mRNA expression of glucocorticoid inducible genes serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), and glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ) was performed. Patients with MDD had significantly smaller volumes of CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, and subiculum compared to healthy controls. In the regression analysis, the factor diagnosis had a significant moderating effect on the association of SGK1 and hippocampal volumes. Patients with low expression of SGK1 had significantly smaller CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes compared to patients with high expression of SGK1 mRNA and to healthy controls with low/high expression of SGK1, respectively. Therefore, a lack of mRNA expression of glucocorticoid inducible genes in patients with MDD that seems to correspond to a blunted cortisol response is associated with smaller hippocampal CA and dentate gyrus volumes. SGK1 seems to be particularly relevant for stress-related mental disorders.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has indicated that 8–12% of couples worldwide experience infertility, and in recent years the number seeking treatment has dramatically increased. The diagnosis and therapy put a heavy psychological and physical burden on most patients, female and male. The incidence of depression in couples presenting for infertility treatment is significantly higher than in comparable fertile couples. Anxiety is significantly higher in infertile couples than in the general population. Professionals have become aware of the importance of providing educational interventions to address patients' fears and concerns, and to better prepare patients for the demands of treatment. Health professionals should follow a patient-centred approach to provide for the specific needs of the couple. Women in general have a positive attitude to seeking psychological help in the form of cognitive-behavioural therapy, couples counselling and infertility counselling.
• Learn about the incidence rates of infertility and its impact on the mental health of the couple.
• Know about infertility treatment and its psychological impact.
• Learn about the different management strategies that can be helpful in the treatment of mental illness associated with infertility.
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