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Background: Infections are a frequent cause of hospital (re)admissions for older adults receiving home health care (HHC) in the United States. However, previous investigators have likely underestimated the prevalence of infections leading to hospitalization due to limitations of identifying infections using Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), the standardized assessment tool mandated for all Medicare-certified HHC agencies. By linking OASIS data with inpatient data from the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR) file, we were able to better quantify infection hospitalization trends and subsequent mortality among HHC patients. Method: After stratification (by census region, ownership, and urban or rural location) and random sampling, our data set consisted of 2,258,113 Medicare beneficiaries who received HHC services between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2018, from 1,481 Medicare-certified HHC agencies. The 60-day HHC episodes were identified in OASIS. Hospital transfers reported in OASIS were linked with corresponding MedPAR records. Our outcomes of interest were (1) hospitalization with infection present on admission (POA); (2) hospitalization with infection as the primary cause; and (3) 30-day mortality following hospitalization with infection as the primary cause. We identified bacterial (including suspected) infections based on International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and ICD-10 codes in MedPAR. We classified infections by site: respiratory, urinary tract, skin/soft tissue, intravenous catheter-related, and all (including other or unspecified infection site). We also identified sepsis diagnoses. Result: From 2013 through 2018, the percentage of 60-day HHC episodes with 1 or more hospital transfers ranged from 15% to 16%. Approximately half of all HHC patients hospitalized had an infection POA. Over the 6 years studied, infection (any type) was the primary cause of hospitalization in more than a quarter of all transfers (25.86%–27.57%). The percentage of hospitalizations due to sepsis increased from 7.51% in 2013 to 11.49% in 2018, whereas the percentage of hospitalizations due to respiratory, urinary tract, or skin/soft-tissue infections decreased (p <0.001). Thirty-day mortality following a transfer due to infection ranged from 14.14% in 2013 to 14.98% in 2018; mortality rates were highest following transfers caused by sepsis (23.14%-26.51%) and respiratory infections (13.07%-14.27%). Conclusion: HHC is an important source of post-acute care for those aging in place. Our findings demonstrate that infections are a persistent problem in HHC and are associated with substantial 30-day mortality, particularly following hospitalizations caused by sepsis, emphasizing the importance of infection prevention in HHC. Effective policies to promote best practices for infection prevention and control in the home environment are needed to mitigate infection risk.
Background: Infections are common at end-of-life in older nursing-home residents. This often leads to the overuse of antibiotics and burdensome treatments. Improving infection management through palliative care at the end of life has been proposed as a key strategy to reducing inappropriate antibiotic use. Black nursing-home residents tend to reside in poorly performing nursing homes. We examined palliative care services in nursing homes with varying proportions of black residents. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative nursing-home survey data (2017–2018) was combined with the Minimum Data Set 3.0 (nursing-home resident characteristics), the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting data (nursing-home facility characteristics), and the Multidimensional Deprivation Index (county-level poverty estimates). The survey included 24 validated items on nursing-home palliative care services, as well as the nursing home’s infection control program and integration of infection management and palliative care (summative score, 0–100). We used nursing-home facility-level multivariate regression to estimate the relationship between proportion of black residents and palliative care scores, before and after controlling for county-level poverty estimates, facility characteristics, and resident characteristics. We categorized proportion of black residents using methods reported in the literature (25%). Results: The mean weighted palliative-care score in our sample of 869 nursing homes (weighted n = 15,020) was 47.7 (SE, 0.70). In unadjusted analyses, nursing homes with higher proportions of black residents provided significantly fewer palliative care services than nursing homes with no black residents, with the greatest differences (P = .027) observed between nursing homes with >25% black residents (mean palliative care score, 43.82; SE, 2.31) versus nursing homes with no black residents (mean palliative care score, 49.47; SE, 1.08). These disparities persisted after adjustment for urbanicity and county-level poverty rates (p < 0.01) but were attenuated after further adjustment for resident and facility level characteristics (p=0.138). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that wide variations in nursing-home palliative-care services exist with increased proportions of black residents, even after accounting for community characteristics. Further research is needed to identify and understand the specific community characteristics that play a role in the provision of palliative care services. Palliative care is a method to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use at the end of life and should be expanded with a focus on nursing homes with higher proportions of black residents.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
While previous studies have described career outcomes of physician-scientist trainees after graduation, trainee perceptions of research-intensive career pathways remain unclear. This study sought to identify the perceived interests, factors, and challenges associated with academic and research careers among predoctoral MD trainees, MD trainees with research-intense (>50%) career intentions (MD-RI), and MD-PhD trainees.
A 70-question survey was administered to 16,418 trainees at 32 academic medical centers from September 2012 to December 2014. MD vs. MD-RI (>50% research intentions) vs. MD-PhD trainee responses were compared by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with academic and research career intentions.
There were 4433 respondents (27% response rate), including 2625 MD (64%), 653 MD-RI (15%), and 856 MD-PhD (21%) trainees. MD-PhDs were most interested in pursuing academia (85.8%), followed by MD-RIs (57.3%) and MDs (31.2%). Translational research was the primary career intention for MD-PhD trainees (42.9%). Clinical duties were the primary career intention for MD-RIs (51.9%) and MDs (84.2%). While 39.8% of MD-PhD respondents identified opportunities for research as the most important career selection factor, only 12.9% of MD-RI and 0.5% of MD respondents shared this perspective. Interest in basic research, translational research, clinical research, education, and the ability to identify a mentor were each independently associated with academic career intentions by multivariate regression.
Predoctoral MD, MD-RI, and MD-PhD trainees are unique cohorts with different perceptions and interests toward academic and research careers. Understanding these differences may help to guide efforts to mentor the next generation of physician-scientists.