To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Negative interactions with humans resulting from livestock predation is a major factor influencing the decline of African lion Panthera leo populations across Africa. Here we investigate lion depredation within two Maasai communities in southern Kenya where people and lions coexist in the absence of any formal protected areas. We explore the factors that increase the frequency and severity of lion attacks on pastoralists and their livestock and assess the effectiveness of livestock guarding to reduce damage. Finally, we examine in which circumstances lion depredation triggers retaliation by people. Over a period of 26 months, lions attacked livestock 29 times, resulting in 41 livestock deaths and 19 injuries. There were also two attacks on people. Lions preferred cattle over the more numerous sheep and goats. Attacks on livestock occurred mostly during the dry season and were not affected by changes in prey density or variation in pastoral settlement that brought livestock into closer proximity with lions. Livestock were guarded during 48.2% of lion attacks. Active guarding at pasture disrupted the majority of lion attacks, resulting in lower mortality rates. Passive guarding in corrals at night also disrupted attacks but did not lead to lower livestock mortality.
A small group of altars to the Lares Augusti, set up by the vicomagistri of Rome’s urban neighbourhoods in the Augustan period, provides examples of imperial imagery produced by patrons of low social status. Their decoration shows the early effects of new Augustan motifs, but they are not merely examples of imagery trickling down from an original, central prototype. The patrons of these altars adapted and even invented images to express their relationship with the princeps for a local audience, and for viewers the altars were themselves sources of imagery, no less ‘official’ than any other source.
The introductory chapter explores the methodology of approaching imperial imagery, from definitions and categorisations to modes of analysis. Defining imperial imagery as imagery that relates to imperial power, the authors reject universal models that purport to encompass all aspects of the production and use of such images in favour of context-based approaches which focus on the ways in which they became embedded in local image systems. The authors single out social dynamics, a term borrowed from economics, sociology, and psychology indicating how large-scale phenomena are the sum of many individual interactions. Social dynamics gives a way to understand how and why imperial imagery was created and used in Roman society at all levels. Imperial imagery had roles to play beyond the emperor’s own sphere, and he was often neither its author nor its audience; instead, individuals used imperial images to communicate with their immediate neighbours, geographically and socially. Multiple users and viewers across the spatial and social spectrums of the empire (and beyond) brought their own experiences to imperial images, and to understand them, we must analyse them in their local contexts.
Images relating to imperial power were produced all over the Roman Empire at every social level, and even images created at the centre were constantly remade as they were reproduced, reappropriated, and reinterpreted across the empire. This book employs the language of social dynamics, drawn from economics, sociology, and psychology, to investigate how imperial imagery was embedded in local contexts. Patrons and artists often made use of the universal visual language of empire to navigate their own local hierarchies and relationships, rather than as part of direct communication with the central authorities, and these local interactions were vital in reinforcing this language. The chapters range from large-scale monuments adorned with sculpture and epigraphy to quotidian oil lamps and lead tokens and cover the entire empire from Hispania to Egypt, and from Augustus to the third century CE.
Paleoecological data from the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years ago to present) provides an opportunity for educational outreach for the earth and biological sciences. Paleoecology data repositories serve as technical hubs and focal points within their disciplinary communities and so are uniquely situated to help produce teaching modules and engagement resources. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database provides support to educators from primary schools to graduate students. In collaboration with pedagogical experts, the Neotoma Paleoecology Database team has developed teaching modules and model workflows. Early education is centered on discovery; higher-level educational tools focus on illustrating best practices for technical tasks. Collaborations among pedagogic experts, technical experts and data stewards, centered around data resources such as Neotoma, provide an important role within research communities, and an important service to society, supporting best practices, translating current research advances to interested audiences, and communicating the importance of individual research disciplines.
Within the North American public education system, institutionalised structures of schooling often prevent teachers from aligning their values with their practice when it comes to environmental education (Bowers, 1997; Weston, 2004). In response to this, this article will outline our lived experiences, as teachers and researcher, in disrupting the traditional school system as we work toward building a new culture in schooling through nature-based education. Acts of disruption that we will speak to include: going outside for learning on a regular basis, teaching for empowerment, involving families in the education, attempts to play with structural confines of schooling, and finding ways to stay empowered ourselves. Through this work, we have found that there is a rippling effect to the disruption that requires courage, grit, and resilience such that we do not slide back into conventional approaches. We have also become empowered in our practices through implementing these changes, watching our students become active stewards within their communities and beyond. We are learning deeply about the work of structural change within a public school district and offer words here as inspiration and support for others wishing to make changes within their own context.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Rodent models can be used to study neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), but the applicability of findings from the models to NAS in humans is not well understood. The objective of this study was to develop a rat model of norbuprenorphine-induced NAS and validate its translational value by comparing blood concentrations in the norbuprenorphine-treated pregnant rat to those previously reported in pregnant women undergoing buprenorphine treatment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pregnant Long-Evans rats were implanted with 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle, morphine (positive control), or norbuprenorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg/d) on gestation day 9. Within 12 hours of delivery, pups were tested for spontaneous or precipitated opioid withdrawal by injecting them with saline (10 mL/kg, i.p.) or naltrexone (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p), respectively, and observing them for well-validated neonatal withdrawal signs. Blood was sampled via indwelling jugular catheters from a subset of norbuprenorphine-treated dams on gestation day 8, 10, 13, 17, and 20. Norbuprenorphine concentrations in whole blood samples were quantified using LC/MS/MS. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Blood concentrations of norbuprenorphine in rats exposed to 1–3 mg/kg/d of norbuprenorphine were similar to levels previously reported in pregnant women undergoing buprenorphine treatment. Pups born to dams treated with these doses exhibited robust withdrawal signs. Blood concentrations of norbuprenorphine decreased across gestation, which is similar to previous reports in humans. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that dosing dams with 1–3 mg/kg/day norbuprenorphine produces maternal blood concentrations and withdrawal severity similar to those previously reported in humans. This provides evidence that, at these doses, this model is useful for testing hypotheses about norbuprenorphine that are applicable to NAS in humans.
Little is known about the experience of family caregivers of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This information is important for the identification of caregivers at risk for burden.
This was a longitudinal analysis of survey data obtained from caregivers of adult CF patients participating in an early intervention palliative care trial. Caregivers completed the validated Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers (BASC) repeatedly over a 28-month period. Mixed-effects modeling evaluated multivariate associations with positive and negative caregiver perceptions over time.
Of the 54 caregivers, 47.9% were spouses. The mean age was 50.9 years (SD = 13.2); 72.2% were women; 75.9% were married; and 63.0% were employed. At baseline, the BASC revealed large variations in positive and negative perceptions of caregiving. Although average scores over time were unchanging, variation was greater across caregivers than within caregivers (0.49 vs. 0.27, respectively). At baseline, the positive impact of caregiving in the sample was higher than the negative impact. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients' baseline pulmonary function and their full-time employment status predicted caregiver burden over time.
Significance of results:
Caregivers of CF patients varied in their positive and negative caregiving experiences, although burden levels in individual caregivers were stable over time. When the disease was advanced, caregivers of CF patients experienced more overall burden but also more positive impact. This suggests that the role of caregivers may become more meaningful as disease severity worsens. In addition, full-time patient employment was associated with lower caregiver burden regardless of disease severity. This suggests that burden in CF caregivers may be predicted by financial strain or benefits conferred by patient employment. These associations require further investigation to determine whether highly burdened caregivers can be identified and assisted using tailored interventions.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Taking public space as her starting point, Amy Russell offers a fresh analysis of the ever-fluid public/private divide in Republican Rome. Built on the 'spatial turn' in Roman studies and incorporating textual and archaeological evidence, this book uncovers a rich variety of urban spaces. No space in Rome was solely or fully public. Some spaces were public but also political, sacred, or foreign; many apparently public spaces were saturated by the private, leaving grey areas and room for manipulation. Women, slaves, and non-citizens were broadly excluded from politics: how did they experience and help to shape its spaces? How did the building projects of Republican dynasts relate to the communal realm? From the Forum to the victory temples of the Campus Martius, culminating in Pompey's great theatre-portico-temple-garden-house complex, The Politics of Public Space in Republican Rome explores how space was marked, experienced, and defined by multiple actors and audiences.