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The NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) was established to support translational research that spans the entire TS Continuum, with the goal of bridging the gap between preclinical biomedical research and real-world applications to advance treatments to patients more quickly. In 2018, the Translational Science Training (TST) TL1 Program at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio implemented new strategies to better include and encourage research more broadly across the TS Continuum, including the addition of postdoctoral scientists and a clinically trained Program Co-Director, expansion of team science and community engagement programming, and targeted trainee recruitment from schools of nursing, dentistry, and allied health, in addition to medicine. The objective of this bibliometric analysis was to determine if the program exhibited a more diverse mix of T-types after the adjustments made in 2018. The TST/TL1 Program experienced a shift in T-type, from mostly T0 (preclinical) to more T3/T4 (clinical implementation/public health) research, after new strategies were implemented. This supports the conclusion that strategic programmatic adjustments by an NCATS-funded predoctoral training program resulted in outcomes that better align with NCATS priorities to develop Trainees who contribute across the entire TS Continuum.
Research education and training in Translational Science develops and sustains a workforce to efficiently advance studies designed to improve human health. We evaluated the effectiveness of a Translational Science Training (TST) TL1 Program. Participants had significantly better publications/year, citations/year, h-index, and m-quotient than nonparticipants. Female and male participants, and participants from underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds, performed similarly on all bibliometric assessments. Finally, TST/TL1 Program participants outperformed students from other PhD programs at our institution. This analysis suggests that the TST/TL1 Program has been effective for participants, including those who are female and from underrepresented backgrounds.
Neonates of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae), Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834), the sympatric cryptic species, Sphyrna gilberti Quattro et al., 2013, and their hybrids were captured in the western North Atlantic, along the coast of South Carolina, USA, between 2018 and 2019 and examined for gill monogenoids. Parasites were identified and redescribed from the gills of 79 neonates, and DNA sequences from partial fragments of the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (COI) genes were generated to confirm species identifications. Three species of monogenoids from Hexabothriidae Price, 1942 and Monocotylidae Taschenberg, 1879 were determined and redescribed. Two species of Hexabothriidae, Erpocotyle microstoma (Brooks, 1934) and Erpocotyle sphyrnae (MacCallum, 1931), infecting both species of Sphyrna and hybrids; and 1 species of Monocotylidae, Loimosina wilsoni Manter, 1944, infecting only S. lewini and hybrids. Loimosina wilsoni 28S rDNA sequences matched those of Loimosina sp. from the southern coast of Brazil. Based on limited morphological analysis, Loimosina parawilsoni is likely a junior synonym of L. wilsoni. This is the first taxonomic study of monogenoids infecting S. gilberti and hybrids of S. gilberti and S. lewini.
Infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD are at high risk for adverse outcomes owing to multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors. Lack of immediate physical postnatal contact because of rapid initiation of medical therapy impairs maternal–infant bonding. On the basis of expected physiology, maternal–infant bonding may be safe for select cardiac diagnoses.
This is a single-centre study to assess safety of maternal–infant bonding in prenatal CHD.
In total, 157 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed CHD were reviewed. On the basis of cardiac diagnosis, 91 fetuses (58%) were prenatally approved for bonding and successfully bonded, 38 fetuses (24%) were prenatally approved but deemed not suitable for bonding at delivery, and 28 (18%) were not prenatally approved to bond. There were no complications attributable to bonding. Those who successfully bonded were larger in weight (3.26 versus 2.6 kg, p<0.001) and at later gestation (39 versus 38 weeks, p<0.001). Those unsuccessful at bonding were more likely to have been delivered via Caesarean section (74 versus 49%, p=0.011) and have additional non-cardiac diagnoses (53 versus 29%, p=0.014). There was no significant difference regarding the need for cardiac intervention before hospital discharge. Infants who bonded had shorter hospital (7 versus 26 days, p=0.02) and ICU lengths of stay (5 versus 23 days, p=0.002) and higher survival (98 versus 76%, p<0.001).
Fetal echocardiography combined with a structured bonding programme can permit mothers and infants with select types of CHD to successfully bond before ICU admission and intervention.
Aortic arch obstruction can be evaluated by catheter peak-to-peak gradient or by Doppler peak instantaneous pressure gradient. Previous studies have shown moderate correlation in discrete coarctation, but few have assessed correlation in patients with more complex aortic reconstruction.
We carried out retrospective comparison of cardiac catheterisations and pre- and post-catheterisation echocardiograms in 60 patients with native/recurrent coarctation or aortic reconstruction. Aortic arch obstruction was defined as peak-to-peak gradient ⩾25 mmHg in patients with native/recurrent coarctation and ⩾10 mmHg in aortic reconstruction.
Diastolic continuation of flow was not associated with aortic arch obstruction in either group. Doppler peak instantaneous pressure gradient, with and without the expanded Bernoulli equation, weakly correlated with peak-to-peak gradient even in patients with a normal cardiac index (r=0.36, p=0.016, and r=0.49, p=0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified an area under the curve of 0.61 for patients with all types of obstruction, with a cut-off point of 45 mmHg correctly classifying 64% of patients with arch obstruction (sensitivity 39%, specificity 89%). In patients with aortic arch reconstruction who had a cardiac index ⩾3 L/min/m2, a cut-off point of 23 mmHg correctly classified 69% of patients (71% sensitivity, 50% specificity) with an area under the curve of 0.82.
The non-invasive assessment of aortic obstruction remains challenging. The greatest correlation of Doppler indices was noted in patients with aortic reconstruction and a normal cardiac index.
Human movement constitutes a fundamental part of the archaeological process, and of any interpretation of a site's usage; yet there has to date been little or no consideration of how movement observed (in contemporary situations) and inferred (in archaeological reconstruction) can be documented. This paper reports on the Motion in Place Platform project, which seeks to use motion capture hardware and data to test human responses to Virtual Reality (VR) environments and their real-world equivalents using round houses of the Southern British Iron Age which have been both modelled in 3D and reconstructed in the present day as a case study. This allows us to frame questions about the assumptions which are implicitly hardwired into VR presentations of archaeology and cultural heritage in new ways. In the future, this will lead to new insights into how VR models can be constructed, used and transmitted.
Experimental archaeology is often cited as an important asset in the study of human interaction with material culture, especially in remote periods of history where there are few other sources of data on the human interventions which constitute the archaeological record. This has found many expressions in the discourse of archaeological theory, including the so-called chaîne opératoire, or ‘operational sequence’ theory (see e.g. Bar-Yosef and Van Peer 2009). However, due to an understandable desire to adhere to empirical evidence, means of inferring the human movement behind those interventions are rarely considered in the computational reconstruction of archaeological environments. The most obvious reason for this is that buildings, features and artefacts can be understood and reconstructed (whether digitally or not) from empirical archaeological remains, whereas there is little or no direct evidence for how people might have looked and moved through the spaces they created. Approaches which seek to go beyond this are methodologically fraught, resulting in a limitation of the scope of 3D reconstruction, both as a tool for archaeological research and as means of presenting cultural heritage to the public. The impact on the user's experience of those reconstructions is also limited. In a review of 3D visualization in archaeology, Gillings states: ‘[I]t is worth noting that one of the most striking things about archaeological Virtualmodels is the lack of people in them.