Depression and obesity are highly prevalent and are considered inflammatory pathologies; in addition, they are also associated with dietary patterns including types of fatty acids (FA). Changes in the FA composition in the brain are determined by changes in the content and quality of dietary and serum FA. The aim of this study was to verify the relationships between serum-free FA, inflammatory processes and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that analysed a database composed of 138 post-pubertal adolescents. Data regarding the depressive symptoms, body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, FA profile, leptin concentration, as well as adiponectin, IL-A, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels of the subjects were collected. A total of 54·6 % of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms, and there were positive correlations between depressive symptoms and serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) content, body fat, and inflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio. Moreover, the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms, suggesting that eicosatrienoic acid (C20:2n6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6) are independently associated with depressive symptom scores and can be critical predictors of poor mental health in humans. These results point to the relationship between SFA and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between dietary SFA and depression in obese individuals.